ACADEMIC BULLETIN OF KYIV NATIONAL KARPENKO-KARYI UNIVERSITY OF THEARE, CINEMA AND TELEVISION
Oleksandr Klekovkin Hundred years of modernity
Nadiia Tereshchuk First theatre companies in Galicia
Lesia Ovchiieva Drama of Jozef Korzeniowski in the stage interpretation of coryphaeus of Ukrainian scene
Oksana Palii Oleksandr Korolchuk and State Maria Zankovetska Drama Theatre of Katerynoslav period: lessons of history (1924–1925)
Vasyl Andriitsio Country Public Theater of Podkarpatska Rus (trilingual theatre of Transcaprathia 1936–1938)
Kateryna Yudova-Romanova, Anastasiia Bezchastna Repertoire policy of Donetsk Academic Regional Russian Drama Theatre of Order of Honor in Mariupol in periods of act of war
Valerii Fialko Ukrainian theatre landscape of the last decade of 20th century
Mariia Pohorila Transformation of classic dance in ballets in one act of Oleksii Ratmanskyi
Serhii Demianenko Festival «First Ukrainian Theatre Spring» (Background of creation and role of the festival in the development of theatre art of Ukraine in 20th century)
Oksana S. Musiienko Modernism and avant-garde – unity of opposites
Halyna Filkevych Music in cinema space of Oleksandr Dovzhenko
Hrystyna Kostiuk Italian horror of 1960s: irrational horror on screen
Mohsin Hennar (Morocco) Light as aesthetic factor in cinematography
Olena Sokolan Image as tool of manipulative influence of television
Bohdan Verzhbytskyi, Oleksii Lebediev, Oleksandr Priadko Compositing in digital cinematography
Oksana O. Musiienko Impact of antimonopoly law on development of American cinema production
Olha Babak Tendency of transnational in modern Ukrainian cinematography: views of scientists
Larysa Naumova Constructivism in Ukrainian culture
Yevheniia Myropolska Artistic context of philosophy of Romanticism
Tamara Hrinie Music eccentricity on scene in epoch of globalization
Roman Rosliak «Ukrainian cinematography by no means can agree to creation of all-Union cinema syndicate»
Liudmyla Novikova Stepan Shahaida through son’s eyes
Amelia Shamraieva Unknown pages of theatre activities of Kyiv drama theatres of pre-war period (1930–1940)
Valentyna Slobodian Do you hear, my brother! Memories, photo documents
Liudmyla Novikova Briuhovetska L. I. Most interesting story in Europe. Screen versions
Heorhii Cherkov Materials to history of Ukrainian cinema (1991–2011). Vol. 2. Books and publications in collections: bibliography index.
Materials to history of Ukrainian cinema (1991–2011). Vol. 3. Publications from literature-artistic magazines and papers: bibliography index.
Hundred years of modernity
The article attempts to identify the main creative principles of Dadaism in the field of theater, its relationship with anarchism, futurism, surrealism and political theater, and the impact of Dadaism on the formation of principles of anti-theatre of second half of the twentieth century (theater of the absurd, the action art, happening, performance, Fluxus etc.). It is no coincidence that theatrical and paratheatrical experiments of second half of the twentieth century led the criticism to a number of definitions, such as neo-Dada, which are used in connection with the work of John Cage, George Maciunas, Bob Wilson and other artists of the late 20th - early 21st century.
Among the key features of the theater of Dadaism it is separated the anarchism, asocial, illogic, antipsychologism, irrationality, absurdism, non-verbal, spontaneity, provocativeness.
Performances of Dadaists in cabaret "Voltaire" and the theater Lugne-Poe are examined through the prism of finding by them new "paradise" language of art, which, ignoring the logic, is based on performativity (as opposed to verbal theater where "content" is concentrated in the text) and provocative interaction with the audience. The attention is focused on preparedness of viewer to the proposed rules of the game and desire to interact with the performers.
Experiments of Dadaists in the early 1920s attracted the attention of Ukrainian artists (Artistic association "Berezil" et al.), but only to the extent to which State Theater could admire the dada and anarchism.
Discussion of Dadaism prospects in Ukraine continued even in 1929, however, its prospects forecast was disappointing because it was thought that Dada has exhausted itself as a childhood disease. But otherwise it could not be, because Dada could never be relevant to state art.
Seemingly brief Dadaism history is not only a historical incident, it is a test of tolerance, a willingness to understand the other and cause for reflection about the possibility of avant-garde art, not its simulacrum, under the patronage of the state.
Vaccination of antipsychologism and irrationalism, Dadaists made in the early twentieth century witnessed the exhaustion of realist art dictionary and paved the way for renewal of theater arts.
First theatre companies in Galicia
Postmodern era and its multicultural approach to the study of life radically changed our understanding of the performing arts. Those events, which yesterday were not perceived as a theater, today, because of its development and the development of theater studies, are expanding our understanding of the performing arts. Thus they change understanding of the history of theater in Ukraine.
At the beginning of 17th century to lead for several large-scale events in Lviv was a specially designed city "publisher of games". Similarly, various theatrical events held in the suburbs of the city. Urban life in different parts of Galicia in 16th-17th centuries often had "hidden" theatricality.
Theatrical culture of Galicia stepped on the way of development before the arrival of the Austrian monarchy, but the form of its existence was more hidden and dispersed. Receptions, opportunities, scenic attractiveness of theater was used for various celebrations, diction development of students in educational institutions, as well as a fashion accessory, which confirmed the aristocratic status of its owner.
Leading for the theater needed an appropriate cultural formation needs. This process started to develop with the appearance in Galicia of first professional actors, enterprises, theater buildings and public – an environment that will deliver later this need.
Drama of Jozef Korzeniowski in the stage interpretation of coryphaeus of Ukrainian scene
The article first examines staging of play of classic Polish dramaturge J. Korzeniowski "Carpathian Highlanders", which in 1890 was placed on the stage of the company of Ukrainian artists P. Saksahanskyi and I. Karpenko-Karyi. The play was in the remaking by actress S. Tobilevych under the name of "Hutsuls".
Due to the fact that the Russian imperial government prohibited translations of plays by foreign authors in Ukrainian, but in order to expand the range of repertory, scene workers tried not to translate but adapt the works of foreign playwrights.
In particular, the drama by Jozef Korzeniowski was remade for the Ukrainian stage three times. The first edition of "Carpathian Highlanders" was made by K. Klimovich in 1864 and went on stage of Ukrainian Galician Theater under name of "Highlanders". The play was written by the author about the Carpathian Hutsul life, about their heroes and defenders of the common people, so it was well perceived by Ukrainian audience. The director of the play was O. Bachynskyi, the main character had been named not Prakseda but Parania, her role was performed by brilliant tragic actress T. Bachynska.
Other remake of "Carpathian Highlanders" by J. Korzeniowski was made by famous Galician actor Karl Pidvysotskyi and went on stage of the Ukrainian public theater at company "Ruska besida" called "Revenge of the hutsul" (1892). In the area of Russian governance in Ukraine the play of J. Korzeniowski was remade by actress and wife of Karpenko-Karyi under the name of "Hutsuls" (1890) and that year has been put on the stage of "Society of Russian-Little Russian artists under leadership by P. K. Saksahanskyi".
The director of the play was P. Saksahanskyi. He also created a highly artistic image of avenger-highlander Antos, which was one of the first heroic roles in his repertoire.
The part of beloved of Antos was played with great success by famous actress Liubov Linytska, which already had a strong theatrical achievement in performing roles of Yaryna in "Nevolnyk", Halia in "Nazar Stodolia", Katria in "Ne sudylos", Olena in "Hlytai, abo zh Pavuk" and other main roles.
In the "Hutsuls" L. Linytska with great skill and warmth played the role of unfortunate Prakseda that lost her mind of love for Antos. Scene of madness was carried by actress brilliantly. This scene is not surprised the audience but caused deep compassion for human misery.
Despite the difficult organizational and staging part of the play "Hutsuls” the performance was more than ten years in the current repertory of company. And all this time it caused great interest of viewers, as always fascinated by unique duet of Antos and Prakseda in convincing interpretation of talented artists P. Saksahanskyi and L. Linytska.
Unfortunately, the play not treated more on the Ukrainian scene since.
Oleksandr Korolchuk and Maria Zankotska State Drama Theatre (1924-1925): lessons of history
The article covers the theatrical activity of Oleksandr Korolchuk in Maria Zankotska State Theatre during the 1924-1925 in Katerynoslav within the intricate framework of social, political, and historical processes.
The article investigates little known period of activity of Maria Zankovetska Theatre of 1920s. The author analyses peculiarities of artistic development of the troop, its repertoire policy and stylistic investigations. Important task of research was to find out functional role of artistic troop of Zankovetska Theatre in theatrical process of Ukraine.
In the article of historiography there is given a well-founded survey of live and creative work of the Oleksandr Korolchuk. This article is dedicated to almost unknown period during the 1924-1925 in Katerynoslav. It analyses theatricals and the order of their appearance.
The article deals with artistic activities of Oleksandr Korolchuk of the 1910s-1920s in the intricate framework of social, political, and historical processes. The introduction into scientific circulation of materials that have never been published before makes it possible to analyze producer dramatic theatre and artistic phenomena of the past from the viewpoint of present-day positions and tendencies, different aspects of Oleksandr Korolchuk live and creative work on a larger scale.
In the article the author sets forth the conceptual positions, related to the interpretations of the classics modern drama in the Ukrainian theatre of the 20th century. Theatre roaming period served as a material of article.
Supposing that modern drama studies are formed on the basis of old-established delusions and erroneous conclusions that are deprived of authenticity, the author suggests reconsidering the ascertained conventional judgements and the ways of the scientific truth revelation. The innovative comparison of the history of drama studies in Ukraine is also provided.
Vasyl Mykolaiovych ANDRIITSIO
COUNTRY PUBLIC THEATER OF PODKARPATSKA RUS (1936-1938)
TRILINGUAL THEATRE OF TRANSCARPATHIA
The opening in March 1936 of trilingual (Ukrainian, Russian, Ruthenian) Country Public Theatre of Podkarpatska Rus(CPTP) in Uzhhorod should be considered as an attempt of Czechoslovak government to solve the problem of linguistic status of state theater, on the other hand - as part of "czechyzation" of Transcarpathia, which in treaty of Saint-Germain of September 10, 1919 joined the Czechoslovak Republic under the name of Podkarpatska Rus. It was at this time of spiritual revival of the region, the government officials and politicians split the local intellectuals into two hostile camps: Ukrainophiles and Russophiles, which joined political fugitives from Galicia, Naddniprianska Ukraine and Russia. Ukrainophiles founded the society "Prosvita" and in January, 1921 opened their Ruthenian theater. Russophiles founded Dukhnovych Society, in 1922 opened an amateur theater under it for the purpose of transferring it to the professional rank. Between societies and their theater groups the "language war" for the status of state theater has gained new turns.
May 1, 1923, local officials address the Czech government their vision of solving the "language war" set out in the Memorandum of Ehrenfeld – Pesek, which stated: ".... The local Ruthenian language is incomparably closer to Czech. Rusyn can easier to understand the Czech language than Great Russian. For us there is only one possible solution: the local language written by etymology! This will meet the desire of local elements, will bring the rest of Podkarpatska Rus closer to other parts of Republic and put the wall against Ukraine and Russia".
So for "czechization" was chosen the Rusyn vector. It also worked in Czechoslovakia Republic the known rule that in every democracy the leading place takes dominate nation. It began with the inclusion in Ruthenian theatre repertoire of the classic Czech operas, where conductors of performances were Czech experts and leading roles performed by Czech singers in original language.
The next step was the establishment of Drama School (1934) with students chosen from talented local youth, with the prospect of opening on this basis the state theater. The repertoire involved works of Ukrainian, Russian authors – in original languages, Czech and Slovak playwrights translated into Ruthenian language. Director of the school, and later director of "CPTP" was Czech actor and director F.Hlavaty. In April, 1938 theatre was in tour in Prague and other cities of Czechoslovakia Republic. However, particularly popular among the population of Transcarpathia has not won. It lasted until October 1938. At this time, Nazi Germany occupied the Sudetenland Czech and in Uzhgorod hortiivski forces entered. The Second World War was approaching.
Creational and organizational activities of the Donetsk Academic Order of Merit Regional Russian Drama Theatre in Mariupol during the periods of hostilities
The article examines and analyzes the creative and organizational strategy of Donetsk Academic Order of Merit Regional Russian Drama Theatre in Mariupol in times of hostilities (1914-1920, 1941-1945, 2014) by grounding the periodization of the history of Mariupol, related to military activities, organizing creative and organizational activity of the theater in the context of military and historical events in the region, basic principles of repertoire and language policies of these periods.
The authors of the study made the following conclusions.
Mariupol Theatre in difficult times, during the First World War and the Ukrainian national democratic revolution was one of the leading cultural and theater centers of the region and country, while remaining a mirror of social events.
During the occupation of 1942-1943 Nazis sought to radically and quickly as possible get rid of any hint of activity in the Soviet regime. The theater, which was Russian before the occupation, became Ukrainian, and this fundamentally changed its repertoire. The first performance of Mariupol Shevchenko Theater after the occupation was Kvitka-Osnovianenko`s comedy "The Courtship in Honcharivka". Theatre launched new shows, and the repertoire policy was dominated by classic Ukrainian drama – plays of Karpenko-Karyi, Kotliarevskyi, Kropyvnytskyi. In addition, an active position was granted to Russian classics – works of Ostrovskyi, Gogol. There were also visiting performances - Nazis used to constantly send actors to the front to serve the German military units. During the occupation, the theater showed 135 plays and 140 concerts.
Mariupol was freed on September 10, 1943. The Shevchenko Theater was called Mariupol State Drama Theatre. The first post-war premiere - Lev Tolstoy`s "Anna Karenina". They staged Russian classics, also brought back the modern Soviet play. Modern Ukrainian and foreign drama was not in the repertoire. Thematically, the prevailing number of plays was ideologically oriented by order of the communist regime.
Today Mariupol actually became a city at the ATO line. Still, the theater keeps operating in these exceptionally difficult circumstances.
The common characteristic of the three wartime periods (1914-1920, 1941-1945, and 2014) is an active creative activity despite the difficult socio-political situation, material and organizational work conditions. Active tours are specific to the German occupation period. At other times, the theater has used only stationary facilities.
Repertory policy of the war period has its distinctive dominants:
- 1914-1920 years - "one-day-play” based on military chronicles;
- 1942-1943 years – Ukrainian-language repertoire with a focus on Ukrainian and Russian classics;
- 1944-1945 years – staging of Soviet and Russian classical authors;
- 2014 - comic and entertaining-oriented performances of classical and modern Ukrainian, Russian and foreign drama; staff situation has undergone significant changes - 13 best theater actors have quit, which had a negative impact on the repertoire; despite the difficult economic situation in theater, they continue to launch new plays.
Ukrainian Theatre Condition in the Latest Decade of the 20th Century
The deep changes in the social, political, and economic spheres of the Ukrainian life in the latest decade of the 20th century resulted in radical upgrade of the repertoire, aesthetic, integrational, and other priorities of the Ukrainian theatre.
The Communist doctrine being the basis of the Soviet scenic art was fading away. Its target ideological grounds focused, first of all, on the social aspects of personality realization, while human existence as such was in the periphery of the artistic priorities. In plays staged by the vast majority of beginner directors, the search for new spiritual and aesthetic benchmarks were replaced with scenic reflections on acute problems – a sort of artistic comment on a number of newspaper and magazine publications as well as TV shows.
At the same time, in the 1990s, feeling the transition between the historical epochs, S. Danchenko addressed the works where, according to the plot, a person got into a whirlwind of disorder, anarchy, morality downfall, and at the same time – of tremendous historical transformations.
Feeling critical about the Soviet era and, at the same time, completely rejecting the social and political chaos and pragmatism of the modern epoch, E. Mytnytskyy mainly concentrated on an individuality opposing the aggressive environment. His performances of that time reflect, first of all, human perplexity being the result of loss of ideals, social and moral guidance, as well as decrease in the value of spirit.
In the panorama of the scenic work of the 1990s, creative search of A.Babenko in the M. Zankovetska Lviv Theatre, S. Moiseiev in Kyiv Young Theatre, A.Bakirov in T. Shevchenko Chernihiv Theatre, V. Petrov’s attempts to add new artistic overtones into the creative life of Lesia Ukrainka Kyiv Theatre etc. deserve attention.
The post-dramatic searches of the 1990s are clearly book-ended by the performances of V. Bilchenko, D. Bogomazov, I. Volytska, A. Zholdak, V.Kuchynskyi, L. Lazorko, O. Liptsyn, V.Troiitskyi, Y.Fedoryshyn etc. Young directors demonstrated radical transformation of classical plays’ texts, formation of play image system in dialogue with quotations from various layers of cultures, non-linear composition of stage action, aesthetic self-value of acting as such etc. – all being unusual for the Ukrainian theatre.
Reacting in the spectator perception most actively, the theatre expanded its target audience, as far as the language of post-dramatic scenic art was close for it. At the same time, we witnessed other evolutionary fractures of the image vocabulary envisaging a link between live traditions of the past and the today’s creative search.
transformation of classical dance in one-act ballets OF OLEKSII RATMANSKYI
The article examines one of the topical issues of contemporary choreographic process – transformation of classical dance in the context of one-act ballets. The one-act ballet genre was formed and has been gaining popularity in the early twentieth century. Laconic small-scale choreographic works replaced fundamental multi-act ballets of the nineteenth century. Choreographer’s opinion broke beyond the canon of classical ballet performances; original plastic has become a tool of the ideas of the new millennium.
Today, genre and form of one-act ballet performance is extremely common. Such specific format of ballet performances allows master to make experiments, while seeking original solutions in the field of ballet directing, sculpture, and also using of stage space.
One-act ballet master Oleksii Ratmanskyi could be surely called a contemporary choreographer, who has over twenty years of successful work on the most famous stages of the world. The original one-act ballets occupy the place among the variety of his dance miniatures and multi-act performances, and approach to their creation was covered in this article.
Sergii N. Demianenko
FESTIVAL "FIRST UKRAINIAN THEATRICAL SPRING"
(Prerequisites for development and role in the development of theatrical art of Ukraine in 20th century)
The First Ukrainian Theatrical Spring was organized and conducted by the Ministry of Culture of the Ukrainian SSR with a Ukrainian Theater Company to enhance the creative teams of the republic to create a new contemporary repertoire and improve the cultural services for workers. Thus, in the festival of such level took part the best theater groups Ukraine at the time. For the attention of viewers were offered 50 works, including works of modern authors – 14 in Ukrainian language and 20 in Russian, 8 of Ukrainian classics, and 4 of Russian classics, 3 of foreign authors, and one classic Chinese.
Many participants was theaters from Western Ukraine, though festival was attended by teams from almost all regions of Ukraine, most of the participants were from Lviv, Vinnytsia, Chernivtsi, Kamianets - Podolskyi, Ternopil.
In addition to the cultural - ideological functions Festival "First Ukrainian Theatre Spring" was a step towards establishing cooperation and
friendly relations between professional groups. From 14 Ukrainian Soviet works that took part in the festival, 8 were created by the author’s
fruitful collaboration with theater companies.
Theatre Festival "First Ukrainian Theatre Spring", summed up the creative achievements of 80 drama and musical theaters of Republic for the
period of 1957-1958. Interregional committee reviewed dozens of performances prior to the competition to allow the best. At the end of the
festival "Diploma of the Ministry of Culture of the USSR" was awarded to theaters, which in collaboration with playwrights created a number of
productions, including Volyn Regional Shevchenko Ukrainian Drama Theatre (“In the Name of Revolution”, Lutsk), Lviv Gorky Youth Theater
("Winged Youth"), Vinnitsa Sadovskyi Ukrainian Music and Drama Theater ("Rainbow"), Khmelnytsky Regional Petrovskyi Musical-Drama Theater
("Why dawn was smiling "), Izmail Shevchenko Mobile Russian Drama Theater ("Old Man").
As the best performances "Princess Victoria" by I. Mamontov staged by Nizhyn Mobile Theater and "Eternal source" by D. Zorin staged by Crimean
Gorkyi Drama Theater and shown at the Ivan Franko Theater were marked.
Thus, in addition to cultural and ideological functions Festival "First Ukrainian Theatre Spring" was a step towards establishing cooperation and
friendly relations between professional groups. A significant number of performances focused on workers of national economy. For example it was
the "Donbass", based on the novel by Boris Gorbatov, "In the Name of Revolution" by M.Shatrov. In preparation for the festival, when writing the
play, the authors worked closely with theater groups. After the fruitful work of the playwright and theater were created plays, which then made their
debut at the festival. Of the fourteen works of contemporary Ukrainian authors, who took part in the festival, eight were created by the joint
creative process of the author and the theater group.
At this theater festival, the audience had the opportunity to observe the performance from all regions of Ukraine. At the First Ukrainian Theatrical
Spring 77 theaters participated from Ukraine. Research shows, this festival was established not only as one of the methods of promoting
contemporary ideology, but to enrich the repertoire, identify strengths and weaknesses in the theaters of Ukraine. This festival was founded
a great potential which is not fading for many years. With its spectacular nature, the event gave the audience the opportunity to contemplate
the play not only as a cultural heritage of our nation, but also as a means of education and spiritual enrichment.
Oksana О. Musiienko
Influence of the anti-monopoly legislation on the development of the American cinema
Usually, when somebody is talking about the monopolies, one can imagine huge gas or oil companies, airlines, media empires, etc. However, one of the biggest monopolies of the beginning of the 20th century existed in cinema. Birth of Hollywood coincides with the implementation of the anti-monopoly legislation, which played a great role in providing the cinema industry with its modern shape.
Thomas Edison, inventor of the cinema in the United States owned in 1890s almost all the cinema-related patents. In 1908 he signed an agreement with nine of his major competitors and created the Motion Picture Patent Company (MPPC), also known as the Edison’s Trust. MPPC becomes the monopolist on the US market, which is limited by the Atlantic coast at the times. From now on, all the other companies must pay the Trust if they want to use cameras, film stock or anything else.
How did the independent companies react? Some of them simply went from the East Coast to the West Coast and started working in California. The other producers, such as Carl Lemmle, stayed and went to the court against Edison.
Back in 1890, the US adopted the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, the first American anti-monopoly law. This law gave right to the US Federal Court to dissolve the trusts, which were an equivalent to monopoly at the times. The Sherman Act outlawed "every contract, combination, or conspiracy in restraint of trade," and any "monopolization, attempted monopolization, or conspiracy or combination to monopolize."
First successful attempt to use the Sherman Act was in 1912, when the US Justice Department started taking very seriously the calls against the Patent Company. In 1915 the court ruled that the Patent Company breached paragraph 1 of Sherman’s Act. In 1918 the MPPC was officially dissolved. This allowed such producers as William Fox, Carl Lemmle, Jesse Lasky and Louis Mayer to become big independent producers and gave birth to the firms, which would create the basis of the future powerful Hollywood empire.
The next collision between the world of the cinema and the anti-monopoly legislation took place in 3 years. Now, the old independent firms were accused of the monopoly practices. In 1921 the Federal Trade Commission accused Famous Players – Lasky in the illegal restriction of trade and in 1927 the court ruled that the Famous Players had to stop practicing block booking and had to sell its cinema theaters.
The next collision took place in a decade, in 1938, when the anti-monopoly division of the Justice Department sued the 5 Hollywood majors, stating that they monopolized first screenings, best talents and discriminated against the independent producers. The decade of hearings resulted in the famous Paramount case of 1948. According to this divorcement case, the studios were forbidden to practice the block booking and own the cinema theaters.
This has deprived the studios from the guaranteed income from the screenings. The studios were obliged to review their approach to filming. From now on, they started making fewer films, and invest into the big stars and big productions, both of which should have provided them with the guaranteed returns. The studios stopped investing in the innovations. Instead, they started importing non-expensive European artistic productions, which allowed filling in the screening time in the smaller cinema theaters, which were not able to buy the expensive Hollywood productions. From 1960-s, there are over 600 artistic cinema theaters all over the country, located mostly in the student campuses.
Also, the majors started losing their monopoly on the market, the independent producers started emerging. Actors and directors have also started creating their own firms. In 1945 there were 70 independent producers in the USA. In 1957 there were 165 of them. The independents took over the low-cost films. They run their commercials on the TV screens and start promoting them in the summer, which was considered to be the low season previously. The rise of the significance of the independents can be easily tracked by the statistics. In 1949 20% of the Hollywood films were produced by the independents. In 1957 this number was equivalent to 1957.
The divorcement law has also weakened the Hays Code’s monopoly. Therefore it can be asserted that the anti-monopoly legislation started breaking the armor of the studio system and paved the way to the new US cinematographers, who gave the second breath to the US cinema in the beginning of the 1970s.
Music in the Cinema Space of Oleksandr Dovzhenko.
Music is one of the components of the artistic gift of Oleksandr Petrovych Dovzhenko.
The atmosphere of musical and poetical folklore surrounded the future artist from his childhood. Dovzhenko repeatedly said that his mother was the source of his knowledge and love for Ukrainian folk songs.
Examples from Dovzhenko’s scripts (“Arsenal”, “The Earth”, “Ukraine’s On Fire”, “Poem About The Sea”, “The Story Of The Flaming Years”) are the confirmation of the influence of Ukrainian folk songs of different genres on his artistic projects, on his figurative and expressive means.
Folk songs play an extremely important part in dramatic composition of different works by Dovzhenko. In his film “Shchors” they sound during the wedding, Bozhenko’s funeral, in the episode of people meeting the Boguns etc., creating the corresponding atmosphere and emotional coloring. In the exposition of cinema story “Ukraine’s On Fire” there is a song which introduces the industrious family of Zaporozhians to us. Folk songs further the development of conflict, deepening people’s emotions, and the film ends with the courageous and patriotic intonations of these songs.
Short and at the same time capacious as to its content is his article “Ukrainian song”, in which he mentions that folk song is “genial poetic biography of Ukrainian people”, their history, their “fathomless soul”, “their glory”.
Dovzhenko especially appreciated the knowledge of folk song and love to it in creative work of the composers. The same article contains his thoughts about the founder of Ukrainian musical classics M.Lysenko.
There is the influence of Ukrainian song on lyrical and epical manner of Dovzhenko’s creative work. The analysis of some sequences, fragments from films of outstanding film director is in the works of art critics R.Yurenev, L.Arnshtam.
Dovzhenko’s articles, diaries, notebooks are indicative of his love to the works of musical classics and his knowledge of the composers contemporary to him. As an example is his record in the diary from September 23, 1945 on the basis of which his story “The Dream” was written. Here and in some other works of the artist the question is about the Symphony in which the “Joy wins”. It was the basis for the thoughts of L.Arnshtam concerning symphonic style of cinema works of Oleksandr Dovzhenko, “heroic symphonic style” similar to music of Beethoven’s “Through suffering to joy”.
Self-critical attitude of Dovzhenko to his musical knowledge and likings is in memoirs of composer D.Kabalevsky, well-known opera singer I.Kozlovsky.
Dovzhenko understood the place and part of music in cinematograph, knew about correlation of visual and sound effects. Evidence of this is in the views of composers who cooperated with him, specifically I.Belza, B.Lyatoshynsky.
Music is one of the components of synthesism of the artistic thinking of Oleksandr Dovzhenko: that is transmission of the seen through musical images, description of life events through music, understanding of “colored sounding” and picturesque music, quiet as an emotional silence. This is testified by the thoughts of the artist, fixed in his diary, notebooks and articles, as well as in polyphony of cinematographic and literary works of Oleksandr Dovzhenko.
The 60-ies Italian Irrational Horror on Screen
The Italian Horror School emergence is a kind of phenomenon. Taking into account the lack of my own literary tradition and hard religious censorship (characteristic of the southern European catholic countries) the emergence of so powerful cinematographic school influential for the whole genre future development (particularly for American slashers of the 70ies and 80ies) is a real enigma. Besides that, the risk for those days Italian cinematographers should be remembered: the strict difference between “high” and “low” culture still exists and the belonging to the B-category (so called “black cuisine” of Italian movie making) for a young director may be as the final career level so as its maximum. Perhaps the Italian horror cinematograph is the most brilliant representative of the European horror school – due to the tendency to irrational, “cosmic” horror realization. The screenplay integrity and the special effects presence don’t play the main role but anyway these movies remain really magnetic.
As a rule two schools are considered to comprise so called “Eurohorror”. The first one is British (the glorious “Hammer” films mainly) and Latin (including Italian and Spanish director movies). These schools traditions are basically different: the British protect the style “sterility” while Italians create the temperamental author’s cinematograph. Two basic courses should be selected here: the Gothic films and so called “giallo”. The gothic style movies go to the ancient times, which are beautiful and sinister unlike the decadent contemporaneity. It stipulates the general movie mood singularity – the combination of morbid decaying world beauty, nostalgia and inevitable doom foreboding. Dead and ghosts are more active than their still alive but helpless antagonists. The character often even doesn’t pay attention to his/her own death and doesn’t realize it. Among famous Italian cinematographers of that period Mario Bava was somebody who had given not just major impetus to the whole school development but also influenced other mature cinematographers in the world.
In 1964 M. Bava had created the basis of giallo thriller in “Six women for the Murderer” film. Till the end of the 60ies giallo and Gothic movie developed in parallel. But in the 70ies the new genre finally possessed the screen. The giallo movie had gained more international recognition than Gothic horror film.
The term has origin in literature – the American novels of mystery which were published in yellow paperbacks (“giallo” – Italian for “yellow”) were popular in Italy during the 50ies. The plot scheme of the whole trend was borrowed from such kind of cheap literature. According to it the murderer is determined in last minute of the movie and the general atmosphere is more like in gothic horror (not in detective story). Actually, the first giallos were just screen adaptations of those novels. But there is the main difference: the proper detective plot is not so important in the movies. It is just a “covering” for the insane game between the main character’s interest and death. The Italian horror cinematograph which “golden age” had been in the 50ies-70ies impressed the world cinema making – in the sphere of plot construction, aesthetics, technical methods and genre cliché.
Italian “gothic horrors” are the source of dramaturgic and visual citations for the movie makers of different genres. Originated in the gothic films, giallo had provoked the 70ies American slashers and the similar movies in other countries.
Light as an aesthetic factor in cinema (abstract)
Lighting is an essential factor to realize a motion picture. It was already clear for cinematographic pioneers, first cinema entrepreneurs who built their film studios with the maximum use of glass having the possibility to take full advantage of natural light. For example, the Georges Méliès studio in Montreuil or the Paris Leon Gaumont film studio.
It is known that the movement of American filmmakers to the US west coast, where the famous Hollywood appeared, was due to the pressure on independent filmmakers from the Edison Trust. But another and very important reason was a large number of sunny days during the year, largely facilitating the shooting on location, especially big crowded scenes. This natural factor contributed to the flourishing of cinema in Italy, especially its epic genres.
However, in the first decades of cinematography its leading masters began to use the factor of light as one of the most important expressive means.
In American cinema we see these attempts at Cecile DeMille in his movie "Temptation" where the director emphasizes deep saturated shadows in order to set the mood of anxiety and danger. If DeMille preferred interiors, Thomas Ince’s cameramen, shooting westerns, felt free to go out to the nature.
Georges Sadoul thought that Ince’s movies, their innovative aesthetics full of lyrical natural images had a significant impact on European cinema, including Swedish one.
Speaking about high technical skills of Swedish filmmakers, we should mention Julius Jaenzon, an outstanding operator who shot the best classics’ films of Swedish cinema: V. Sjöström and M. Stiller. One of the first prominent screen works by Sjöström was the adaptation of Ibsen's poem "Terje Vigen." The most dramatic events of the protagonist’s life, from his youth to his old age, are shown at sea. Thanks to the brilliant Julius Jaenzon’s camerawork the sea is not just a scene, but one of the main persons of the drama.
Equally impressive is the lighting of mountain scenery in the film "The Outlaw and His Wife" (“Berg-Ejvind och hans hustru”). Immersed in the fog summits, light games in the powerful waterfalls, as well as the fire lighting of a small hut in the mountains refuging the heroes of the film – all this gives the impression of extraordinary harmony.
The operator reaches spectacular effects in the movie "The Money Mr. Arne" by M. Stiller combining an inflamed house with a snowstorm: it looks like sparks and snowflakes transform into each other.
Swedish filmmakers’ experience has been widely used in European cinema, especially in French one.
Louis Delluc, a prominent film critic and a film theorist, appreciated the artistic level of Swedish films. In his books he paid a special attention to the "mission" of lighting in the cinematography. In "Photogenic" Delluc identifies four basic systems of cinema language: decoration, lighting, rhythm and mask. The researcher pays a special attention to the light. As a film theorist of impressionism Delluc prefers light nuances and semitones warning of the so-called "Rembrandt" lighting with its sharp contrasts of light and shadow.
One of the most notable figures of German cinema of the 20's was undoubtedly F. Lang. He created two great movies: "Die Niebelungen" and "Metropolis." Not all historians attribute these Lang's films to expressionism, however, the signs of expressionist lighting definitely have place here, though L. Aysner says that Lang's work with light sources is beyond the expressionist style.
These influences can be seen in the works of Soviet avant-gardists, as well as French "poetic realism" directors and American "film noir".
In the local plan we can speak about the use of lighting as an aesthetic factor that developed in these directions.
TV-image: the instrument of manipulative influence
Given research focuses on different TV-manipulation tools and technical hooks which are used in video\image production. Also it analyzes the basic structures which determine creation of product, which changes public opinion, manipulate with public consciousness, and refers to viewer’s perception. The author refers to works of Ukrainian, Russian and world psychologists, biologists and media researchers, first propaganda theorists, PR and mass-media researchers.
Television has its own tools and materials of reproduction, distribution and interpretation of different kinds of information: audio, visual, graphics, text, noise, etc. The combination of these elements makes this kind of mass-media especially effective in “manipulation arts”. Because the eye of a camera focuses on strictly chosen object. Chosen by the author of the video. For example, Russian researcher Kara-Murza insists on that camera turns the action into pseudo-action by making accents and changing event’s weight. Researcher calls it “lullaby effect of television”. He believes the viewer is passive in the process of consumption and analysis of information. Because the same time and the long-term influence over texts, images, music, noises and calm home atmosphere brakes all filters, turns off the “brain fence” and takes secret senses out of control. As the result the effectiveness of the invasion to viewer’s mind rises with the speed of lightning.
The author of given research believes that the sense of the certain image depends on the angle of camera’s view, director’s idea and the arts of editing. That’s why the author tries to create the system of strong, constantly effective tools of TV-image manipulation.
Bohdan Verzhbytskyi, Oleksii Liebiediev, Oleksandr Priadko
Compositing in the digital cinematography
Based on the materials and articles from periodicals and their own experience, authors of this article analyze compositing, one of the most promising directions of creating digital composite images, varieties of compositing and methods of its application in the cinematography. The article analyzes the work of a cinematographer when creating a composite image in the modern cinematography and television industry.
We study the modern approaches in the work and training of cinematographers, related to the relevancy of using compositing in the digital filmmaking. The article analyzes using by a cinematographer of new technologies and methods on the stage of film shooting with a clear understanding of the shot's future after all corrections and transformation stages. The article considers the necessity to create single lighting solutions of the scenes using capabilities of previsualization, the technique of modelling different movie scenes before they are actually filmed.
The article analyzes problems related to the creation and use of mobile masks for parts of the image and methods of creating a multi-layer image and its individual layers. These include chroma key technology and manual creating of masks using rotoscoping, which are very common in the current digital cinematography and television.
Peculiarities of restricting the arsenal of creative possibilities of the cinematographer in the modern cinematography, appeared due to using compositing in the cinematography, are the subject of this research as well.
The article considers using image post-processing, the computer graphics for creating a "new" image and its impact on the viewer to simulate the corresponding emotions and impressions.
Currently, image post-processing became an essential step of filmmaking. As a rule, in modern cinematography the processing of materials with the help of computer graphics starts after the shooting period and during the editing period. Typically, image post-processing with the addition of computer graphics and other artificial elements are used in order to influence the viewer as efficiently as possible, induce the appropriate emotion, impression or feeling. In modern film language, special effects are one of the means to influence the viewer. The dramaturgy of most modern films works is based on specially designed effects in combination with compositing technologies.
Trend of transnational in modern Ukrainian cinema: academics views
The article examines the views of domestic researchers on trend of transnational in contemporary Ukrainian cinema and foreign scientists’ works in view of the globalization processes in national filmmaking. This theme was covered in Ukrainian film studies faintly and only superficially. But nowadays it is very relevant because of free globalization trends access to various areas of national life, and sometimes failure due to a number of circumstances to create their own products, so Ukrainian cinema is increasingly beginning to follow multinationals, especially American, trends and model of the filmmaking.
Traditionally transnational by definition is a global achievement and unifies common features for cinema of many countries, but it is no secret that Hollywood is a translator of artistic standards. This idea can be traced in the works of Ukrainian researchers such as: L. I. Briukhovetska, V. V. Illiashenko, V. V. Lubska, M. O. Yudov, I. B. Zubavina, K. O. Danilyshyna ets.
Subject of transnational incarnations in Ukrainian cinema has not taken up by domestic scientists, but the problem of transnational influence on cinema culture and society is more disclosed in the works of foreign scholars. There are scientific researches of M. I. Zhabskyi, I.A. Poluehtova, G. V. Trepakova, S. A. Polotovskyi, E. V. Gavrilova, L.-Ch.Kіn, E. Geiger and R. Jay, S. Moffett, R. Smith, Ch. Wessels, R. Langley, T. Luca, M. Glancy, A. Sloan, M.-G. Frank, V. Roudometof and others.
At the same time there is a small number of scientists’ works in which Ukrainian cinema in the European context is studied. There are the scientific researches of such scholars as: L. I. Briukhovetska, S.V. Sliepak, V. A. Bakalchuk, O. M. Lytvynenko and others. Consideration of this issue is due to the fact that Ukrainian films, including feature shorts, are designed to festival show, so filmmakers try to adapt their films for a European audience, employing French, German, Italian, Danish, Polish canons of filmmaking. Also European cinema has established itself as a model of high-quality film, which is a significant source of experience for local filmmakers. Cleary European cinemas have a great impact on the Ukrainian film industry, but this influence today is still inferior to Hollywood and less pronounced.
So, considering the scientific work that cover trend of transnational in modern Ukrainian cinema, we can say that the domestic scientific heritage is rather lacking in this area and contrasts with the rapid foreign trends conquest, especially American conquest, the cultural heritage of the other countries. Foreign researches of transnational trends in the cinema and different cultures form a small layer, but it is adjuvant for study of this topic, so on this basis, we can say that film studios need to attract scientific personnel and careful study of the abovementioned problem.
Constructivism in Ukrainian culture
Constructivism as a way of art at first time manifested in Ukrainian literature. In Ukrainian literature it was determined. But when we talk about Constructivism in Ukrainian literature we are understanding all cultural and art process.
Ukrainian litterateurs were in all cultural and political processes. Some of them had leaded big art groups. For example, M. Semenko, V. Polishuk, M. Khvylovy and other. They had their own projects of cultural way. They was theoretics of art and culture. And they influenced on all artistic and cultural processes of their time.
In process of learning Ukrainian Constructivism we must understand it connection with other areas of art. Ukrainian theorist of art and literature G. Verves talk about one well known version of the avant-garde art. According to this theory, the avant-garde art is including many areas of art. Constructivism is one of this areas.
S. Pavlychko in her work "The Theory of Literature" is exploring identity of Ukrainian avant-garde art in Ukrainian literature. So the outstanding characteristics of the avant-garde art are the characteristics of Ukrainian Constructivism too as in literature as in all Ukrainian art.
Ukrainian culture and Ukrainian art in first part 1920's, after some centuries of influence of Russian culture, after First World War and Bolshevik Revolution, was in difficult situation. The hard political and economic condition had had bad influence for all Ukrainian culture and Ukrainian art.
S. Pavlychko named as Ukrainian the avant-garde art identity; the nonconformism as a manifestation of conformism, the destruction, the destruction as demonstration the violence and other. She discerns some negative elements and processes in this area: anti-intelligence, anti-philosophy, anti-individualism, anti-psychology and other. The leaders of the new age chose the Eastern route, not West. But at the same time there are big interest in Ukrainian classical art, literature and poetry, big interest in Ukrainian folklore and traditional culture.
V. Morenets in his work "National ways of poetic modernism of the first half of the twentieth century: Ukraine and Poland" describes the determinants of Ukrainian Constructivism in poetry. He believes Ukrainian Constructivism not only existed, but had a significant impact on the future of Ukrainian art and all cultural process. He believes Ukrainian Constructivism was great area of art with significant creative power and potential. In his work he shows the influence of Ukrainian Constructivism in Ukrainian literature of XX century even outside of Ukraine.
Artistic context of the philosophy of romanticism
The article deals with the connections of the philosophy of Romanticism with English art of this epoch (short context), Middle Ages, the Age of Enlightment’s philosophy and art of the 19th – beginning of the 20th centuries (distant context). Such indications as nature’s admiration, child’s cult, gothic’s passion, irony, riot and mystic have been underlined.
After the Age of Enlightment, which was born in England and widened in France and Germany, the philosophy goes through revolution which changed pragmatic standards for aesthetic. Romanticism replaced rationalism.
There are three periods of the philosophy of romanticism’s existence: the source of German idealism (1795-1801); 1801-1807 – its burial by Hegel; then its regeneration to artistic intuitionalism, religions mystic and irrationalism.
Based on pantheism, Romanticism opened principally new attitude, which resists to the crowd. Firstly it touched nature, its cleanness and expressiveness in picturesque garden. Its main features: asymmetric, non-formal, variety, serpentine lake. «Rus in urbe». This garden corresponds with nature’s philosophy of F. Shelling.
Artistic world of England incarnated the content of philosophical texts of the epoch of Romanticism. It was nature which inspired English painters to be attentive in its contemplation. Thankful to this fact they opened such nature’s qualities which had never been fixed before. John Constable was the first in the history of landscape who began to paint outside (impressionists appeared later, in 1860s).
Romanticism in English art presented a broken line of W. Blake. His drawing was similar to Middle Age’s manuscripts. His figures are made with the help of line which can express the most contrast feelings. Distant context of this manner one can observe in the pictures of Ukrainian artists-vans.
The new impression Romanticism added to child’s cult. The epoch of Enlightment perceived a child as a grown-up. Blake’s poems and Lewis Carroll’s «Alice’s adventures» represented children as children, playing «nonsense», building dialogues which were interested to children.
The next phenomenon of Romanticism – irony is retracing in W. Thackeray’s creativeness which corresponds with Hogarth’s prints (short context).
Gothic’s passion born such genre as gothic novel (novel-mystery) which reflected the idea of romantic non-reception of the reality, evil’s fatal supremacy. Byron’s, Shelly’s, Scotts’ and Maturin’s works have been analyzed as typical examples of this genre.
The philosophy of Romanticism continued its influence on different branches of art. In USA it was E. Po. In Ukraine – «theatre of coryphaeus», which affirmed scene emotional experience for the first time in Ukrainian theatre.
Musical eccentrics on stage in era of globalization
The author examines the canonical composite structure of pop classical performance and its large variety in the genre of musical eccentrics in the era of globalization. This is the undisputed innovation of this article. Considering the problem of reducing art relevance in pop performance where simplified minimum trick to primitive component is observed, based on analysis of modern content the author concludes impossibility of similar point of view putted forward by experts Kuznetsov, Kogan, Venetsyanov and others.
Directly examining the problem of relevance and evolution of musical eccentrics, and lack of a new interesting experimental work on circus arenas, the author finds the trends for development of the genre on stage, which is the actual purpose of this article. This article can be useful from both scientific and practical points of view to actors, directors and producers within theatre, variety show and circus.
Innovation nature of the article is in its scientific approach to studying of genre’s new forms such as the musical eccentric show on stage, as well as studies of already established canons of the eccentrics together with changes brought to the genre by the existing information flow of rapid technology globalization.
The author analyses some latest examples of stage performance and makes the following conclusions:
1. Compositionally, performances are built and adjusted to the optically plane stage area when features of a spherical circus arena neither used or taken into account, which inevitably affects the style of a circus performance.
2. Performance is often based on a rather complicated plot that is made of a number of scattered tricks. The conflict of the characters on stage is more detailed than on the circus arena, especially when it comes to performance in a small room. Also, a smaller area of a stage allows transmission of more complex shades of feelings and emotions. The interaction with music instrument looks more sophisticated and instruments that are used can be quite tiny.
3. Tricks chosen are rather lightweight. Pantomime insertions often dominate throughout the tricks part of the performance. As a result, the artists during a 10-12 minutes’ performance spend on average the same amount of time on mimics and on the actual tricks. Also they use a widely deployed in the theatre play around a comprehensive long pause. So, technically mediocre performance can be perceived as a virtuoso by skillfully chosen stage setting. The pantomime becomes a core of the performance. The stunts and tricks in this context act as only illustrative examples.
Also, the author establishes the reasons behind the expansion of genre’s boundaries today and states that under the strong influence of Broadway shows and musicals the music-eccentric performances became rich in not only comedy but also dramatic collisions. The drama is usually enhanced by special music and lights effects as well as special decorations used during the performance. The tight interrelationship between eccentrics and cinema has created a unique symbiosis of genres. The influence of the internet culture has contributed to the emergence of music and eccentric videos, which greatly expanded the communicative boundaries of the genre. In videos sometimes we can see the merging of pop music and musical eccentrics.
«UKRAINIAN CINEMATOGRAPHY CAN NOT ACCEPT THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ALL-UNION CINEMA SYNDICATE NOWAY…»
Documents and materials on the history of the loss of autonomous status by the domestic film industry
Late 1920s – early 1930s was a turning point for Ukrainian cinema. A range of innovations were introduced (sound), which greatly influenced the aesthetics of art cinema. Organizational and administrative changes were important as well. Foundation of the Soviet centralized management of the entire film industry was laid at this time.
Publication aims to analyze certain aspects of the incorporation of the Ukrainian film industry to the Soviet one.
Independent status of Ukrainian cinema was one of the factors that positively affected its development in the 1920s.
Along with the economic independence autonomy created possibility to choose the best ways of cinematography development. Growth of film production and the number of cinema halls was a result.
Soviet Union authorities were dissatisfied with autonomy of the Republican film organizations and tried to implement centralization.
Acute discussion on the creation of the All-Union governing cinematographic Center was held at the All-Party meeting on Film in 1928. Although Republican cinematography managed to maintain autonomy, the first step towards centralization was made.
Resolution meeting on Film included: firstly, organization of the permanent commission in the advocacy department of the CPSU (b). Its main tasks were coordination of thematic plans of film organizations with current agenda of the party and general supervision and control over the content of film production. Secondly, the meeting decided to establish a single Union regulatory and planning center (Committee) for film distribution and for exports and imports.
Film committee at the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR was organized on January 29, 1929.
Functions of the Film committee were not limited to distribution and import-export issues. Film committee also received the right of legislative initiative and the right of film- and photo-industry supervision, the right to control distribution network throughout the USSR.
Creation of the Film committee was perceived with anxiety in Ukraine. People's Commissar of Education of Ukraine Mykola Skrypnyk and head of VUFKU Ivan Vorobiov wrote a letter to the party authorities on its negative consequences for Ukrainian cinema.
Moscow pressure on the republic film industries did not stop. Instead new projects on the film industry reformation were introduced. All of them were designed to subordinate all film organizations to the single Federal Center.
On the February 13, 1930 a decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR "On the formation of the all-union association for film and photo industry" was issued, which marked the beginning of the implementation of centralization of national film organizations.
Fate of Ukrainian cinematography was sealed with release of this decree. All-union film association controlled production, distribution and exploitation of films, production of film and photo equipment and materials.
Thus, at the end of the 1920s the Soviet Union started to boost the processes of centralization. Cinema was no exception. Trying to subdue and control the "most important of the arts," the Kremlin party authorities started actively influence the Republican film organizations, primarily in Ukrainian. Documents show that Republican authorities tried to resist the attempts to subordinate national film industry to the interests of the center. However, the concentration of power in the sole hands (of Stalin) and its significant strengthening made this resistance ineffective.
Constructivism in Ukrainian culture
Constructivism at first time manifested as a way of art in Ukrainian literature. In Ukrainian literature it was determined. But when we talk about Constructivism in Ukrainian literature we are understanding all cultural and art process.
Ukrainian litterateurs were in all cultural and political processes. Some of them had leaded big art groups. For example, M. Semenko, V. Polischuk, M. Khvylovyi and other. They had their own projects of cultural way. They was theorists of art and culture. And they influenced all artistic and cultural processes of their time.
In process of learning Ukrainian Constructivism we must understand it connection with other areas of art. Ukrainian theorist of art and literature G. Verves talk about one well known version of the avant-garde art. According to this theory, the avant-garde art is including many areas of art. Constructivism is one of these areas.
S. Pavlychko in her work "The Theory of Literature" is exploring identity of Ukrainian avant-garde art in Ukrainian literature. So the outstanding characteristics of the avant-garde art are the characteristics of Ukrainian Constructivism too both in literature and in all Ukrainian art.
Ukrainian culture and Ukrainian art in first part of 1920s, after some centuries of influence of Russian culture, after First World War and Bolshevik Revolution, was in difficult situation. The hard political and economic condition had had bad influence for all Ukrainian culture and Ukrainian art.
S. Pavlychko named as Ukrainian the avant-garde art identity; the nonconformity as a manifestation of conformism, the destruction as demonstration of the violence and other. She discerns some negative elements and processes in this area: anti-intelligence, anti-philosophy, anti-individualism, anti-psychology and other. The leaders of the new age chose the Eastern route, not Western. But at the same time there are big interest in Ukrainian classical art, literature and poetry, big interest in Ukrainian folklore and traditional culture.
V. Morenets in his work "National ways of poetic modernism of the first half of the twentieth century: Ukraine and Poland" describes the determinants of Ukrainian Constructivism in poetry. He believes Ukrainian Constructivism not only existed, but had a significant impact on the future of Ukrainian art and all cultural process. He believes Ukrainian Constructivism was great area of art with significant creative power and potential. In his work he shows the influence of Ukrainian Constructivism in Ukrainian literature of 20th century even outside of Ukraine.
Unknown pages of theatrical activity of Kyiv dramatic theaters of prewar period
During the 1930s-1940s, Kyiv was experiencing a real boom in theaters. The dramatic, ballet performances took place in theaters. Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, and Belarusian troops were performing. Theatres had a great repertoire at the time. Theaters had not only Ukrainian, Russian and Western classics repertoire, but also contemporary topical plays of Mykola Kulish, Oleksandr Korniichuk. Such plays as "Death of a squadron" by O. Korniichuk, "1st Cavalry" by V. Vishnevsky, "Lubov Yarovaia" by K. Trenev, "Mizhburie" by D. Burdin was a good confirmation. All theater performances in the 1930s imbued with revolutionary heroism of the October Revolution and the Civil War were accepted well by the audience not only in Kyiv, but also in other cities of the former Soviet Union and had a huge success.
Shevchenko Theater, State Russian Drama Theatre opened the season by the play of the author V. Vishnevsky "1st Cavalry" in 1930-1935 years. The whole play was based on individual illustrations of historical pictures of the Red Army combats. The performance was accompanied by an explanation of the "Presenter"; the main role was played by V.A. Stronskyi - the artist of the Leningrad Drama Theatre.
In Shevchenko Theater in Zhytomyr, in the season of 1937-1938 years, occurred the tour of Kyiv Russian Drama Theater with the premiere of "How Steel Was Tempered" by V. Rafalovych based on the Ostrovskyi novel. The main role of Pavel Korchagin was played by a young unrecognized Kyiv actor I.I.Vasylevskyi.
Generally, the mentioned program of 25 theater performances illuminate the unknown pages of the theater activities of the Shevchenko State Russian Drama Theater, Zankovetska State Ukrainian Drama Theater in Kyiv and the repertoire, which consisted of classical works of domestic and foreign authors who had had tremendous success. Tours of Kyiv State Regional Theatre of Russian Drama took place in drama theaters of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus and have made significant contributions to the Ukrainian theater studies of the pre-war period (1930 -1940).
ACADEMIC BULLETIN OF KYIV NATIONAL KARPENKO-KARYI UNIVERSITY OF THEARE, CINEMA AND TELEVISION
Oleksandr Klekovkin Fathers of theatre
Agnia Pashkevych Tour of Meyerhold theatre in 1927 in Kharkiv in the context of cultural-artistic life of city in capital period
Valerii Fialko Scenic time as active factor of forming
image systems of performances of Ukrainian theatre of 1970s-1980s
Serhii Demianenko Background of creating of festival «Ternopil theatre evenings. Debut» and its part in theatre space of Ukraine
TO 170 ANNIVERSARY OF BIRTH OF I. K.
Iryna Meleshkina Coryphaeus theatre and Jewish theatre:
Petro Kravchuk «Mazepa» – not known play of I. K. Karpenko-Karyi
Svitlana Valutsa Mykhailo Starytskyi and Marko Kropyvnytskyi: mutual influence to
development of theatre art in Ukraine in second half of 19th century
Lesia Ovchieva Liubov Linytska as Gandzia from
homonymous play of I. K. Tobilevych
Alina Marchenko Plays of I. K. Karpenko-Karyi in
repertoire of M. Sadovskyi theatre
system of P. K. Saksaganskyi
Iryna Zubchenko Plays
of Marko Kropyvnytskyi on modern Ukrainian stage
Roman Rosliak Bolsheviks and Ukrainian cinematograph:
some aspects of state policy in first years of soviet period
Anastasia Pashchenko Visual images of history in cinema of
soviet Ukraine on 1920s (on example of D. Demutskyi’s work)
Bohdan Verzhbytskyi «Social dangerous elements» in soviet cinema
Larysa Naumova Rhythmic part of composition of film
frame in theory of L. Skrypnyk
Halyna Pohrebniak Italian neorealism and Ukrainian author
cinema. Meeting points
Ivan Kanivets Elements of variability of plot in Ukrainian cinema
Serhii Marchenko (Phenomenon of film «Tini
zabutyh predkiv» («Shadows of forgotten forefathers») in context of consideration of language of
novel and film)
Olena Onishchenko Theoretical-methodological potential of
interscientific connection: European experience of late 19th – first
half of 20th century
Maryna Braterska-Dron Leviathan of Russia
Liudmyla Novikova Serhii Paradzhanov and Ukraine.
Collection of articles and documents
Heorhii Cherkov Musical culture of Ukraine and
documentary cinema (on materials of H. S. Pshenychnyi CDKFFA): guide
Oleksandra Shapoval Braterska-Dron M. T. «Kingdom of Spirit and kingdom of Caesar» in reflection of cinema screen
of Meyerhold theatre in 1927 in Kharkiv in the context of cultural-artistic
life of city in capital period
visited Kharkiv as a stage director at least eleven times between 1900 and
mid-1930s. Both spectators and professional critics came to appreciate his
theater’s performances and displayed great interest in such visits. Those of
1927, described in the article, were among the best ones during the 1920s.
his theater stayed in Kharkiv from July 3rd to July 17th
and presented five performances on the stage of the T. Shevchenko (formerly Moussoury) Theater, including “The Forest” by A. N. Ostrovsky,
“Go Roaring, China!” by S. M. Tretiakov, “Europe Will Be Ours” by M.G. Podgaietskyi, “Inspector-General” by N. V. Gogol and
“Professor Bubus” by A. M. Faiko. The latter two performances were
presented to Kharkovites for the first time. The director also met with the audience, lecturing on the art and
The first detailed press review (signed by a pen-name Dim-rov) dealt with “Go Roaring, China!” The author meticulously informed the readers of all the key elements
of the performance. He stressed mass scenes, exact and well organized, described in detail the whole of stage expanse. It is worth mentioning that the reviewer pays his attention to mass scenes, omitting individual actors’ contribution.
Of great value is a profound review of Meyerhold’s lecture “The Theater in Europe and in the USSR”, given in the theater of Trade Unions Garden. The reviewer disguised as “S.G.”, made an attempt to re-create as thoroughly as possible the fundamental
theses of Meyerhold. The famous director had divided the lecture into two parts, Theater in the West, and Theater in the
USSR. He analyzed the situation with theaters and plays in Britain, Italy, France, and Germany, comparing it with what he saw in the Soviet Union.
This research contains a detailed analysis of the biggest review, that of Meyerhold’s interpretation of “Inspector-General,” new for the
Kharkovites in this respect. Its author M. Romanovskyi maintains that the performance revealed quite a number of talented actors, a wonderful ensemble of Erast Garin, Vasily Zaichikov, Maria Babanova, and
Zinaida Raikh. Due to their work, the reviewer found it impossible to classify
“this great work of Meyerhold’s art” as “the left-wing trend” or “the
right-wing trend” as the performance gave spectators integral and complete
detailed review (by Dim-rov) deals with “Europe Will Be Ours”, which
had already been on stage for four years. Generally speaking, the review was rather perfunctory, utterly lacking exactness. Dim-rov particularly stressed the dynamism of action and came to the conclusion that the performance, despite deterioration of certain elements, managed to preserve the main quality, namely, it reflected rapid growing of the proletarian state in struggle as well as the triumph of the Revolution. This theme still made an enormous impression on spectators.
The researcher failed, as yet, to discover in archives a single review of the other
new production by Meyerhold that of “Professor Bubus,” which fact makes it
difficult to create the whole picture of the Meyerhold Theater’s guest
performances in Kharkiv in 1927.
Scenic time as active factor of forming image systems of
performances of Ukrainian theatre of 1970s-1980s
The scene practice of the 1970-1980s gives every reason to
say that the artistically redefined stage time became a major factor in shaping
the performance imaginative system. Analyzing the searches of Ukrainian theater
masters, performances of the leading directors of other republics of the
country, and theoretical studies on the artistic space and time, the author
highlights the process of enrichment of imaginative potential of the stage
chronotop, which, revealing the aesthetic resources, allowed the theater to
cover new areas and levels of life.
The drastic changes in the stagecraft of the 1960-1980s
strengthened the influence of temporal and spatial structures of shaping the
performance imaginative system. This article considers the works of L.A.
Alshytsya to play "Rain" by S. Maugham in Ivanov’s Theater of Odessa
(director K. Chernyadyev, 1976) and "Holosiivskyi Forest" by V. Sobko
in FrankoTheater of Kyiv (director B. Meshkis, 1968)revealing in this regard.
Analyzing the co-creation of the director M.Reznikovych and scene
designer D.Borovskyi at staging of the "Unendowed Bride" by O.
Ostrovskyi (Lesia Ukrainka Theater of Kyiv, 1973), the author focuses on the
nature of the chosen time and, accordingly, scenic environment solution, mode
of actors’ play etc. The performance image system was lined up by editing
displacement of chronotops. In each episode, the nature of the stage time was
determined by the accuracy of everyday episodes and richness of psychological
components of events taking place. However, the proposed editing of episodes
compacted the deployment stage events; creating conditions for implementation
of the director’s design, i.e.to play the entire "Unendowed Bride" as
the culmination of the drama by Larisa Ohudalova.
The struggle for the boundless capacity of the stage time and
space unfolded in the territory of almost any play. However, these processes
have been manifested with great clarity in prose staging. The unlimited
possibilities of spatial and temporal transformations of literary texts,
author’s presence in every moment of description of the events taking place,
subtle spiritual vibrations of the characters brought the search for a visible
equivalent of coverage of the major performance events, a spectacular way of
building the dramatic action, to the theater of prose.
Quite revealing in this sense seems to be the work of the
Kyiv Youth Theater at W. Tendryakov’s story "Spring Inversions"
("Spring Madonna" performance, directed by V. Patsunov, artist - M.
Frankel, 1975). The innovating approaches in the relations between literature
and theater witnessed the stage reading of the "Choice" novel by V.
Bondarev and G. Gorin’s play "Tevye Tevel" from the cycle of stories
"Tevye the Milkman" by Shalom Aleichem (Franko Theater of Kyiv, 1984,
1989)by director S. Danchenko and stage designer D. Lider.
Stage reading of the prose increasingly participated in
senses hidden in the depths of the literary mainland, demonstrated the
experience of radical transformation of the prose text structure and new
approaches to formation of imaginative performance systems clearly observed in
directing works of I. Borys, V. Kuchynskyi, I. Volytska, D. Bohomazov, A.
Kuzhelnyi and others, who have become notable events of the cultural process of
the late 20th and early 21st
Background of creating of festival “Ternopil theatre evenings. Debut” and its part in theatre space of Ukraine
Actuality of topic of research determines by interest of historical and organizational aspects of the festival «Ternopil Theater Evenings. Debut» a partial region of Ukraine, and its importance in the history of Ukrainian theater.
The article talks about the establishment of Festival «Ternopil Theater Evenings. Debut» and its organizational aspects.
For twenty-four years of state independence of Ukraine there were only few publications on these problems. The founder of the festival was M. Forhel. Analyzing the theatrical process of Western Ukraine in different periods, we cannot avoid the period under his leadership (1992-2006). M. Forhel was the unique person which was inherent traits such as sensitivity, openness, deep and varied knowledge not only in the organization of theatrical business, but also in other educational areas. He graduated from the Kyiv Institute of Culture, after it - the famous «GITIS» (State Institute of Theatrical Arts in Moscow).
The festival aims to search for young talented Ukrainian stage direction, representation performances by young directors of Ukraine, near and far abroad, performances of various formats in the chamber , small and large stages and checking of modern theatrical process in the variety of its directions, styles. Thanks for this festival make a significant contribution in decision of the largest problems of today's theater – the problem of directing.
There is no fundamental works , which have been researched the most important historical and organizational aspects of the festival and its role in the independent Ukraine festival movement in general till the present day, therefore the aim of our research is to analyze the phenomenon of Festival «Ternopil Theater Evening. Debut» from the idea of history of its creation and development.
A nationwide festival «Ternopil Theater Evenings. Debut» dedicates to the memory of the world famous stage director reformer Kurbas. The name of the festival is taken from the name of this outstanding director launched in 1915 in the city Ternopil the first professional theater.
Festival «Ternopil Theater Evenings. Debut» gave the theater of Ukraine another level, the level of cooperation and self-realization not only actors, but also young stage directors. Thanks to the festival, viewers have the opportunity to observe the performance of European level.
The festival plays an important role in the theater life of Western Ukraine and the development of Ukrainian theater in general. Festival «Ternopil Theater Evenings. Debut» presents achievements not only of Ternopil theater, but also makes it possible to judge the progress achievements of other theaters. It is not only evidence of high culture, but also ability to satisfy the needs of the audience, which can be enriched spiritually and culturally.
170 ANNIVERSARY OF BIRTH OF I. K. KARPENKO-KARYI
theatre and Jewish theatre: crossroads
history of Jewish theater in Ukraine attention should be paid to the fact that
the development of Ukrainian and Jewish theater in the Russian Empire was held
largely similar. Studying the history of different ethnic groups, unwittingly
finds analogies in the processes taking place, as well as the role played by
this or that figure in the national culture.
Thus, the Hebrew
Abram Holdfaden theater occupies a place of honor, which in Ukrainian theater
rightfully has Marko Kropyvnytskyi - actor and director, organizer of the first
professional troupe, playwright who worked for his first full theater
actress Esther-Rohl Kaminska Jewish contemporaries called Duse. With the talent
of Eleonora Duse compared the talent of another great actress, contemporary of
Kaminska - Ukrainian Zankovetska. These famous actresses had much in common,
including each embodied on the stage national character. Critics gladly
compared performance of Kaminska’s Hasya-fatherless role in the eponymous play
by Jacob Gordin and implementation of Zankovetska of Harith role in
"Maidservant" by Ivan Karpenko-Karyi. As image-Harith Zankovetska
embodies the best features of Ukrainian female character, and Hasya – Kaminska,
first of all, the daughter of her people – unhappy, suffering, but able to
maintain their kindness, honesty, hard work, self-esteem.
In the history
of two theaters - Ukrainian and Jewish - can be found many common points,
processes, factors. Primordial development of the national theater as music and
drama, with two equally strong components - expressive dramatic art with an
extremely powerful acting and rich nature of music and song folk culture - also
combine with the Ukrainian Jewish Theatre.
government ban on Jewish Theatre published in1883 close to the time and is
similar in meaning to the Ems order of 1876, prohibiting the establishment of
Ukrainian troupe. Follow National Theatre, prevented from speaking their native
language, suffered from censorship and meticulous control fully depending on
arbitrariness of local authorities - this way Jewish and Ukrainian theater were
side by side.
difference. If there are many common points in the history of the Jewish and
Ukrainian theater, the main thing that separates them - that Ukrainian theater,
having gone through difficult times, maintained its language; played, plays and
will play Ukrainian. Hebrew theater failed. It lost its language and went into
oblivion. Today the full revival of Jewish theater unfortunately is not
not known play of I. K. Karpenko-Karyi
"Mazepa" play was written by I. Tobilevych in 1896 and released to
the world under the pseudonym "Tuhai". Its premiere took place on
November 18, 1896 in Chisinau. The performance was on the playbill of brothers
Tobilevych’s troupe until 1902. The performance was not shown very often. There
were only six shows, apart from the one in Chisinau: May 5, 1897 (Kharkiv),
August 22, 1897, June 15, 1899 (Katerynoslav), 14 and 21 January 1899 (Kyiv),
15 April 1902 (Zhytomyr). The major roles were performed by the best actors of
the troupe: Mazepa was played by M. Sadovskyi, Maria by L. Linytska, Kochubey
by Ivan Karpenko-Karyi, Palyii by P. Saksahanskyi.
of "Mazepa" had a great success among the viewers as well as it had
good reviews in the press. I. Tobilevych is one of the first Ukrainian
playwrights who attempted to get away from the existing official estimates of
Mazepa’s personality made by politicians, showed the image of a compromise
Hetman and comprehended the native history events of the early 18th century,
which were associated with Mazepa’s patriotic deeds.
After that and
up to the modern times the I. Tobilevych’s "Mazepa" was not printed
and was not intended for the stage production.
In 2012, a historical romantic drama by I. Tobilevych reached the reader thanks to the hard work of the
editor Svitlana Bronza, who produced a sound work "Unknown Ivan Tobilevych
(Karpenko-Karyi)", which was published by Kirovograd Publishing Imex-LTD.
Starytskyi and Marko Kropyvnytskyi: mutual influence on development of theatre
art in Ukraine in second half of 19th century
deals with practical bases of the first Ukrainian professional troupe in
Central and Eastern Ukraine. Attention is paid to the formation of a practical
school of acting, which became the solid foundation of national ensemble
directing. The author investigates the role of M. Starytskyi and M.
Kropyvnytskyi in the development and organization of Ukrainian theater art and
Ukrainian professional theater as an institution.
Starytskyi, Kropyvnytskyi, professional institution, practical school of
acting, poetic and romantic movement, ensemble direction.
professional theater of late 19th – early 20th century
was a popular and recognized not only in Ukraine but also abroad. Despite all
the prohibitions and harassment from the Russian Empire it was developing. It
should be noted and described the great contribution of the Ukrainian theater
personalities, including M. Starytskyi and M. Kropivnitskyi in the development
and organization of Ukrainian theater art and establishing Ukrainian
professional theater as an institution.
shown which barriers they faced as acting contrary to prohibitive laws and
"will" that stood in the way of Ukrainian professional theater. It
was a difficult time that Starytskyi and Kropyvnytskyi served with great
dedication to theater.
history of Ukrainian theater R. Pylypchuk rightly said, "The concept
of" professional theater "appeared in theater studies in the
twentieth century. When own theater studies was established as a separate
scientific branch of Art (option sometimes used "professional", but
"professional" – better, since the first adjective derived from the
noun "profession", and the second-from "professional").
However, it is a theater in which the play professionals who not only earn a
living but also demonstrate the professionalism, which is raised above the
level of artistic theatrical amateurish persons employed for daily work in
various professions. Of course, there was a time when acting professionals were
former lovers. In the past few who has a special theatrical education [1.175].
Acting developing of young actors in the troupe was led by "luminaries of
Ukrainian theater", in particular by Starytskyi and Kropyvnytskyi.
The theme of the
article is collaboration between M. Kropyvnytskyi and M. Staritskyi from August
15th, 1883 to February 3rd, 1885 to create professional
Ukrainian theater in eastern Ukraine.
have argued that there are differences of opinion on the development of
professional theater between Starytskyi, Kropyvnytskyi and Karpenko-Karyi.
Analysis of the
material showed that Starytskyi and Kropyvnytskyi had a common goal that united
them – to serve Ukrainian theatrical art, making it accessible to ordinary
people, and understanding of theater as a school of life.
and created parallel but Starytskyi audience's attention concentrated on the
Ukrainian repertoire (staging works by Gogol in the 1870's). Tried to teach
people go to the theater, its representations argued on good and melodious art
of living and hidden in the Ukrainians. M. Kropyvnytskyi this time gaining
experience as professional actor on the stage of Russian province.
So Starytskyi is
classified as one of the pioneers of Ukrainian professional theater. Beside M.
Kropyvnytskyi, they argued directing in the theater. Working with amateur
actors Starytskyi carefully explained to everyone what is his role. Moreover,
at the first meeting of M. Staritskyi and M. Kropyvnytskyi, they talked about the
poor design of the play, the bad suits and quite miserable decorative design.
For the first
time in the Ukrainian theater decorative design and costumes for each
performance were introduced by director Starytskyi. He turned to the most
famous Ukrainian scientists and ethnographers for advice on making theatrical
costumes and props for their productions.
A short time
after this the professional troupe of M. Staritskyi and M. Kropyvnytskyi were
incredibly fast growing mastery of theater actors in performances of 1880s. It
was not just the performance in Ukrainian language and Ukrainian professional
theater performances. This is evidenced by the countless reviews that allow
trace routes touring troupe in cities such as Odessa, Zhitomir, Novocherkassk,
Rostov, Kharkov, Simferopol, Sevastopol, and Yalta. The first city was Odessa -
15 August - 5 November of 1883, Ukrainian troupe caught the attention of
critics and won its audience among senior public at fundamentally new qualities
performances. It is in this troupe was formed a unique practical national
theater school of Kropyvnytskyi – Staritskyi. Ukrainian actors revealed the
living soul of the hero, awakened its sympathy, though attracting spectators to
the events that took place on the stage. This was achieved through art school,
which held its young actors in the theater – it says in the book of E.
Zarnytsku T. Kinzerska. And then the author notes, "Tour of troupe of
Kropyvnytskyi and Starytskyi in the mid-1880s in St. Petersburg and Moscow were
the triumph of the national theater, amazing contemporaries directing and
acting – all vital role breathed genuine truth and simplicity. True and vividly
individualized, full of sharp feelings figure of Ukrainian peasants, carefully
design crowd scenes, picturesque of Ukrainian scenery, a true peasant life,
original staging, various new theatrical effects, good singing and music – all
this against the background then not very artistic not only provincial, and
even the audience of the capital of Russian theater was impressed and forced to
admit heights of Ukrainian theater, even with its poor as comparable
repertoire, tamed by the terrible censorship".
his drama is a stylistic trend, a direction of Ukrainian theater, poetic and
romantic. However, M. Kropyvnytskyi, along with the works of other playwrights,
became the founder of Music and Drama. Continuing the tradition o Kotliarevskyi
and Shevchenko, Starytskyi built his drama, seamlessly linking it with folk
songs and dances. His musical creativity had inner content and the musicality
of the word. That is why it needs special disclosure of music, musical mix with
the sounds of the game of actor orchestra, singing with dance. It is this
Starytskyi who has its own original face in drama, that is what he determines
the line of romantic, lyrical stage work, which exists today in the Ukrainian
So Starytskyi and Kropyvnytskyi launched a national theater school
in 1880s by creating a Ukrainian professional theater in Central and Eastern
Ukraine. And although every two years organized a separate company they have
created for the Ukrainian professional theater from its inception, formed in
1890. New Ukrainian theater groups took up Ukrainian theater not only in the
provinces of the Russian Empire, but even abroad. "It was clear that the
theatrics of artistic realism, ensemble unity and professional maturity is not
an isolated phenomenon concentrated in one, two or three troupes," - draws
conclusions in the essays Y. Hlibtsevych - "generated as a result of intensive
cultural progress post-Reform Ukraine, exemplary troupes multiply their
experience and contributed to the general development of the theatrical
"Marko Kropyvnytskyi the question of the beginning of the Ukrainian professional
theater." Scientific Bulletin of Kyiv National Karpenko-Kary University of
Theater, Cinema and Television: Collected Works / Kyiv National Karpenko-Kary
University of Theater, Cinema and Television; Ed.: Bezgin O.I. (Chairman), etc.
- K., 2011. - Vol. 8. - P. 175.
"Troupe" // Ukrainian Drama Theater. Essays on History: In 2 t. - K.,
1967. - Vol.1. - P. 280.
Linytska as Gandzia from homonymous play of I. K. Tobilevych
The paper for
the first time examines the staging of a poetic drama from the times of Ruins called "Handzya" by I.
Tobilevych, and the main role of Handzya starring an outstanding master of
female characters L. Linytska, the second generation actress of Ukrainian
"Handzya" was written by I. Tobilevych in 1902, and according to the
most critics, it is considered to be the most "odious" work among all
the prerevolutionary dramas. Almost a year the play was under the consideration
of the Russian-tsarist censorship. After the censorship permission on July 31,
1903 the premiere of "Handzya" took place in Kharkiv, starring: P.
Saksahanskyi as Hetman Khanenko, M. Sadovskyi as Pyvo-Zapolskyi, Ivan
Karpenko-Karyi as Lobel, L. Linytska as Handzya. The Handzya character was the
most difficult for implementation on stage. With her warm and lively
performance the actress L. Linytska managed to draw the general sympathy of the
audience to the image of Handzya. Moreover, the actress played the role of
Handzya for eight years and was, in fact, the only actress to play this
character on the Ukrainian stage.
of I. K. Karpenko-Karyi in repertoire of M. Sadovskyi theatre
considers the dramatic works of Ivan Karpenko-Karyi on stage of the first
permanent theater in Kyiv of Mykola Sadovskyi.
In the book
"Five great actors of Ukrainian scene" Valerian Revutskyi wrote that
the repertoire was best left to the play of Kropivnitskyi and Tobilevich by
Staritskyi. In these plays was highlighted the true picture of life.
And if we
examine in detail what plays were "golden fund" of theater at the
beginning of its existence, we see 16 plays of Karpenko-Karyi, with 18 written
And whether the
play Karpenko-Karyi is sustainable, archaic? The answer is - no! Yes, it has
been proven over the years the repertoire at the viewer. These performances
usually have success and box office, which was also not last for theater that
But in the new
environment, with the advent permanent theater was the opportunity to
thoroughly treat the artistic design and music performances. Participation and
support of outstanding musical artists and decorative art brought the artistic
level of performances. That is, it should be noted that the changed approach to
staging performances and dramatic work came to life in new ways.
Sadovskyi felt very finely and deeply understood the drama of Ivan
Karpenko-Karyi and his talented cast also helped popularize the performance of
maintaining a repertoire of Ukrainian classics it was wise self-preservation
mechanism best traditions of theater luminaries.
permanent theater repertoire, we can conclude that M. Sadovskyi fully
represented playwright of Karpenko-Karyi on stage. And it is no coincidence,
because even in the new historical conditions plays by Karpenko-Karyi continue
to live, and critical social issues raised by the playwright in those realities
remain relevant today.
system of P. K. Saksaganskyi
The theme of
this article – the methods of work on the role of Ukrainian actors, is not only
the subject of little research as implemented. As one of the leading arts
education institutions in Ukraine Kyiv National Karpenko-Kary University of
Theater, Cinema and Television is served basically by the system of Stanislavskyi,
I think that other public schools of art direction used to study contemporary
actors by this system. It should be emphasized that each actor still uses on
stage its own experience on the role in the release of the performance.
However, modern artists in Ukraine know very little about the work in the past
of Ukrainian actors, their achievements, successes and experience.
Karpovych Saksahanskyi left his memorable work on roles as he worked on stage
without interruption for more than 50 years. The actor joined the troupe of
Starytskyi in 1883. It is obvious that past successes have helped Panas
Karpovych to opt for the acting profession, therefore, very important that to
the talent and hard work (that Saksahanskyi considered the foundation of the
actor's profession) was added confidence in its abilities to help to get rid of
fear and reveal the actor's talent. Remembering the first entering on the
professional scene, the actor wrote that he was confused, lost, forgotten text,
hands and feet would not move, these feelings familiar to many young actors,
who first took the stage. After such a failure - the most expensive actor's
dream was to win such a technical skill that would allow, regardless of health
status and mood, acting be implemented in the right way. Saksahanskyi outlined
the multiple roles that he liked and decided to study them for training. Here
begins the quest for just the period of developing talent that can be called
acting by Saksahanskyi.
First Saksahanskyi claimed that the actor must be talented and hard working.
The object of continuous research for Panas Karpovych was an ordinary man -
watched as different types of people react in similar situations, their
movements, facial expressions, words. His role Saksaganskyi called
"theatrical costumes", saying that thanks to the numerous technical
exercises his "theatrical costumes" is always ready for use instantly
and help needed to become a hero. In his article "Theatre of Youth"
Saksaganskyi summarized what should have every actor: first of all, considered
an actor, you need talent, which cannot be fake, natural voice, desire to
learn, watch and not be content with little success, a critical attitude to
himself, to try to extract as the widest education to be able to more clearly
see and understand that recreates the scene, do not rely on his natural talent
and by working on themselves to develop and strengthen this talent, playing a
character on stage only after diligent training to care also for body to be
always healthy and genuine production tools.
Plays of Marko Kropyvnytskyi on
modern Ukrainian stage
It is believed that the classic is outside
the flow of time, that its relevance is an indisputable fact. However in the
theater this fact does not only depend on the author, but primarily on the
director, who interprets his chosen classical text and confirms or refutes the
relevance of classical work in its staging.
According to the example of the current
performances of the Musical Drama Theater of Rivne «Have been left holding the bag» and the Ternopil Shevchenko Theater «The Meanie, or the Spider»
by Marko Kropyvnytskyi, we can trace the approach chosen by directors to create
performances after one of the founders of the Ukrainian theater and the 175th
anniversary of whose birth we celebrate this year.
Performance «The Meanie, or the Spider»
was staged in 2011, but when watched, it arouses a feeling of appeal to current
events, and it's the definite advantage of the performance. The director felt
the time and the text, and set interesting emphases in the staging, which have
become even more crucial over time.
The play «Have been left holding the bag», instead, unfortunately proved a myth, especially spread among
young people, that the Ukrainian playwright is not interesting, not modern, and
fixed on the peasants’ theme, which is very far from the European patterns of
classical drama, and the director did not feel the time and the author’s
thought. Thus, the performance is a bit archaic and predictable.
Many researchers are writing that the art of
the coryphaei, including Kropyvnytskyi, can be safely viewed in the context of the
European theater. It would be appreciable, if the directors indulged in search
of this context in the texts of the coryphaei. The theatre theorist Yurii Bogdashevskyi wrote in the article
"National Theatre of the Coryphaei": «Their educational
qualification was primarily quite high, and they “persistently courting their
garden” were certainly well acknowledged in the aesthetic search of the pattern
if not in the global, at least in the European theater».
At the same time, the coryphaei created their own theater “of the
Ukrainian flesh and blood”, mentality and attitude in essence, which later
allowed the words of Starytska-Chernyakhivska that «our generation is the exceptional generation: we were the first
Ukrainian children. Not those children raised in the village, in the native
area of the emerging Ukrainians.
We were the city-raised kids, whose parents brought up for the first time from
the cradle, by the conscious Ukrainians in the hostile circumstances». Today, these quotes become the most actual,
since we seek the European future, and become conscious Ukrainians in the
hostile circumstances. I wish that the theater could «feel» this and contribute
to this process.
and Ukrainian cinematograph: some aspects of state policy in first years of
The article aims to
examine some of the features of the Bolsheviks state policy in the cinema field
for several years after the October Revolution of 1917.
Realizing the importance of cinema in
the propaganda implementation, Bolsheviks have made significant efforts to establish control over the movies.
of 1918 in Soviet cinema faced requisition.
Bolsheviks try to establish requisition on the occupied Ukrainian
the end of 1917 Russian starts invasion of the Ukrainian People's Republic. However, the first occupation did
not influence cinema. Bolsheviks
stayed in Ukrainian territory for
too little time to make any significant transformation
in the film industry. However,
certain steps have been taken.
Great powers of local authorities Board Secretariat of Public Education of
the Ukrainian Soviet Republic the option of controlling the theaters and
cinema. The document was published 17 (4) in February 1918. The order gave the
Soviets the right to take control of all theaters and cinemas, monitor their
activity and, if necessary - to close them.
Much more influence
had faced domestic film industry following 1919 when the Red Army launched a
second attack on Ukraine. This time the Bolsheviks were in power for about nine
months ago had more time to make appropriate changes in Ukrainian cinema. In
addition, they had already gained some experience in reforming the Russian film
In January, 1919
the All-Ukrainian Kharkiv cinematic Committee (“Kinokomitet”) was made. It had
the task to subordinate all the movie industry for use as a means to promote
the ideas of socialism.
Resolution of 18
January 1919 “Kinokomitet” ordered all owners of movie theaters, rental houses,
innately, laboratory for three days to register their business. Guilty in Court
threatened default resolution revolutionary tribunal.
although declared national scale, but its effect was limited to the territories
occupied by the Bolsheviks.
In March 1919, the
Bolsheviks seized Kyiv. Ukrainian cinematic Committee moved to Kyiv.
“Kinokomitet” starts their legislative activity from scratch.
regulated also on the highest governmental level. In February 25, 1919 a decree of the Council of People's Commissars of Soviet Ukraine cinemas was published.
According to the new law, three of the Kharkov cinemas were nationalized.
In July 1919 in Odessa Soviet military department nationalized film studio by Dmitry Kharitonov.
Nationalization was prevented after Red Army moved away from Ukraine in the summer of
1919. However, in late 1919 the Bolsheviks managed to recover lost ground
again. The process of nationalization started again.
Finally Bolsheviks managed to take control of the cinema at the end of 1920. At
this time, the cinematography was decentralized. This happened due to the war
Thus, for several
years Ukrainian film completely changed its ownership — from private to public.
IMAGES OF HISTORY IN CINEMA OF SOVIET UKRAINE IN 1920S (on example of D. Demutskyi’s work)
The article is
devoted to the work of D. Demutskyi as a director of photography whose works
became not only the pattern of the cinematographic skills, but also the
mouthpiece of the new world-view of the Soviet Ukrainian culture.
consists of the introductory chapter and three chapters that contain the main
part of the work. In the introductory chapter, “The film photography and representation
of the Soviet world-view in the cinema”, the problem of the research is set and the short review of the related literature
is given. D. Demutskyi is analyzed as the director of photography who filmed
several significant features of his time. Three of them are considered, each
one as the representation of a certain history model. They are the main works
of the “silent” period which are: “Two Days” by G. Stabovyi, “Arsenal” and
“Earth” by O. Dovzhenko. The first one represents “microhistory”, the second
one embodies “epical history”, and the third one visualizes “historical
In the chapter
““Two Days” as the microhistory by photographic techniques”, the film “Two
Days” by G. Stabovyi is considered. The hero of the film, the butler Anton, was
to reflect his epoch in his life story. The acting was especially important in
such a film, as the hero’s inner world was in the center of the story. The film
director had to transfer the acting on the film in the most effective way, and
to amplify it with the set of photographic techniques. D. Demutskyi made
photographic portraits that reflected the condition of Anton and his attitude
to the situation perfectly. A number of expressionistic techniques indicated
the state of a man whose world collapsed the personal story as a fragment of
““Arsenal” as the epic history” presents the analysis of the O. Dovzhenko’s
film. Like “Two Days”, it is shot in the expressionistic stylistic, but here it
has another semantics. “Two Days” is the personal story that reflects the
History; meanwhile “Arsenal” is the epic story. Expressionistic techniques here
are purposed to present the images as the symbols. Photographic techniques,
such as the photographic portraits, treatment of light and shade, composition
etc. provide the
monumentalization of the images. A number of allusions on traditional culture
incorporated in the filmic texture also ensure its epic content.
““Earth” as the historical present” examines the other O. Dovzhenko’s feature
that presented the story based on the material of the modernity. At that time,
the feeling of the historic sense of the present time was strong, so the film
presented the events of the modernity in the mode of sublime. Photographic techniques of D. Demutskyi were
of great significance in this case. The technique of monocle, innovatory at
that time, provided shining picture that had connotations of sublime. On the
opposite, the scenes filmed in almost documentary manner, supplied the text
with the signs of modernity. The visual system of the film in general created
the image of present that had the mode of sublime.
So, each of the
analyzed films represented the different mode of history that had its place in
the Soviet culture space of the 1920s.
DANGEROUS ELEMENTS” IN SOVIET CINEMA
The article studies
the fate, work and impact of Danylo Demutskyi, director of photography of the
film "Earth" by Oleksandr Dovzhenko, on the director Sergii
Paradzhanov. Author makes an attempt using the materials to connect and uncover
little-known facts of the history of cinema, under conditions of Soviet
worked as editor at the Dovzhenko film studio with Yuri Illienko and Ivan
Mykolaichuk on the film “Krynytsia dlia spraglyh” (Well for thirsty), “Vechir
na Ivana Kypala” (St. John's Eve), "Babylon XX", collected materials
for a documentary film. She implemented her plan by creating in 1993 film
"Hallowed be thy name" about the director of photography D.P.
Demutskyi. Material of documentary included early Demutskyi’s photographic
work, his participation in the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in Paris, the love
story of Danylo Porfyrovych and his beloved - Valentyna Mykhailivna, work in
the theater "Berezil." In one scene, it appeared then already
prisoner Sergii Paradzhanov. Also in the film appeared a lot of materials
related to the illegal arrest of Danylo Porfyrovych. We know that in 1930s the
ideological pressure intensified, generated by highly centralized political
power, and D. Demutskyi was sent into exile as "socially dangerous
Savchenko with Danylo Demutskyi at autumn 1949 began to work on
historical-biographical film "Taras Shevchenko". His students were
present on shooting; among them was 25-year-old Sergii Paradzhanov. In the film
"Taras Shevchenko" Paradzhanov was impressed by artistic vision of
Demutskyi, who like Taras also experienced exile in Uzbekistan, where he has
suffered serious moral test, where he was able to find a second home, and love
to people and their art. Group collected interesting material about the first
steps of Paradzhanov in cinema and his acquaintance with Demutskyi family.
In the movie
"Hallowed be thy name" it is unique shooting directed by Paradzhanov,
being a guest in house of Demutska Valentyna (remembering the time when he came
to Ukraine the period of knowing its nature, culture and people).
In the book
"Visual building of film" by director of photography Volodymyr
Nielsen, published in 1936, it is not mentioned about the director of
photography who is the author of the image in Dovzhenko films, in 1935 Danylo
Demutskyi was sent to Tashkent. The book by Anatoliy Holovnia "Light in
art of director of photography" in 1945 analyzed work of many directors of
photography and not mentioned either about Demutskyi not about Volodymyr
Nielsen, who was arrested on October 8, 1937, and executed on January 20, 1938.
At this time on all screens were shown movies filmed by Volodymyr Nielsen:
"Jolly fellows", "Circus" and "Volga-Volga".
The author hopes
that further research will lead to the discovery of the manuscripts, which are
probably still stored in closed funds and help to explore the relationship
between the authorities and artists.
neorealism and Ukrainian author cinema. Meeting points
researcher defines a special place of authorship movie in spectacular culture.
In his reflections about the author film and author cinema researcher based on
his own experience and considerable theoretical potential articles of Ukrainian
and foreign scientists as D.Bordvell, E.Byullo, V.Vynohradov, Ya.Hazda,
E.Yefymova, L.Zaytseva, I.Zubavina, A.Mattelar, H.Marshal, O.Musiyenko, S.Nil, O.Orlov,
S.Penzin, K.Razlohov, N.Samutina, V.Skurativskyy, S.Trymbach, S.Freylih,
examines the concept of «author's intent», «directing task», «directing
dictate», «collective work» and concludes that the author's personal creativity
in providing movie requires a coordinated team of associates. In addition, each
participant as a professional film crew is making a personal contribution to
the production of the film, but only by filmmaker is able to unite the creative
efforts of employees in their own unique personal style that goes beyond the
believes that the origins of author cinema should not look at a cinema riparian
state, since signs of authorship can carry a film of any country and does not
exclude the interplay of different copyright models. The article suggested that
the impetus for the development of author movies can be certain social,
socio-political conditions that require the artist’s personal relationship,
identifying citizenship and more.
indicates flourishing author cinema in Europe in the middle of the twentieth
century. And sharpening debate around the issue of cinematic authorship related
to the creative work of masters of the French «New Wave».
suggest that the origins of Italian cinema author model can be found in the
works of neorealism – 1940s-1950s. So the author analyzes movies of
R.Rosselini, L. Viskonti, V. De Sica, D. de Santis. The principle of Ukrainian
model of author cinema in the opinion of the investigator is in the works of A.
Dovzhenko, and such representatives of poetic cinema as S.Paradzhanov,
In the article
the comparative analysis of the Italian and Ukrainian models of authorship
reveals their ideological and meaningful, characterized by imaginative
composition, directing means of expression. The researcher concludes that both
models have much in common, including their national character, and similar
conditions of origin, since neorealism cinema and poetry were the work of
directors who are not declaring common artistic and aesthetic applications were
firmly united by powerful idea of ideological resistance to public policy and
ideology in culture.
work of young Ukrainian authors (such as M. Slaboshpytskyi, V. Vasianovych, M.
Vroda, I. Strembitskyi) researcher is convinced, modern Ukrainian author cinema
indirectly is affected by neorealism movies of the past century. The researcher
argues that in modern Ukrainian cinema is a significant creative potential
realization of the author's identity.
While working on
the subject, author used the methods of scientific analysis, comparison, and
OF VARIABILITY OF PLOT
IN UKRAINIAN CINEMA
Ukraine from 1991 to the present has demonstrated the effectiveness of the
influence of cinema on the political and social situation in the country.
Ukrainian filmmakers have to create their own cultural product that would be
able to take a dominant position in the national cultural space. Creating
popular cultural product involves the use of the latest development in the art
of cinematography, one of which is the principle of variability in the story of
actor and director O. Oleksiienko created several film-declamations based on
literary works. Despite the high popularity, they were produced in one or two
copies, and required the participation of actors behind the stage. Soon it was
decided to remake them as normal movies. These movies have not survived. However,
the need to remake shows that the authors without possibilities of sound sought
to create drama by other means, and therefore, we have an example of
were filmed repeatedly. First film adaptation of the Kotliarevskyi’s play
"Natalka Poltavka" appeared in 1911. This film is lost. Next version,
directed by I. Kavaleridze, appeared in 1936. In 1978 there was a new film directed by L. Kolesnik. Differences between films have a
significant impact on films drama because of changes to the main conflict. This
is internal conflict. Its climax comes in both versions at the time the Peter
comes. In the 1936 version Natalka should take independent decisions, which
will show us the essence of its nature. In the new film, the choice is obvious
and its protection is to some extent the manifestation of character nature. But
the conflict is changed from more melodramatic in the old version to more
heroic. It is important that all the dramatic differences between the films had
been developed as minor actions, details makeup, facial expression, leaving the
remarks of the characters intact.
story of Ukrainian cinema, which clearly demonstrates the differences in drama
for maintaining overall story, is "Forest Song" by Lesia Ukrainka. The
film by Ivchenko shows the internal conflict of Mavka. Her character, naive and
sincere, clearly reflects the desire to find her place in the world, without
breaking with the forces of nature, following her love. Not realizing the size
of the abyss, which she is trying to overcome, Mavka brings disaster to herself
and then others. Other characters serve only to disclosure of the conflict.
In the film by
Illienko, the very essence of the conflict was transformed. At the beginning of
the film we see the scene of social conflict, where family was expelled from
the village. This, like the prologue, adjusts the audience to the conflict that
unfolds further in film. This is conflict between Mavka and external
circumstances. Mavka is fighting for her happiness, and faces the collective
negative character, the elements of which are almost all the characters on the
discussed in this article shows that the director has broad capabilities in
building characters, dramatic conflicts and storylines that could significantly
change the perceptions of the audience, while based on the same material.
part of composition of film frame in theory of L. Skrypnyk
article is about the theory by L. Skrypnyk declared in his book “Essays about
theory of cinema art” (1928).
Skrypnyk (1893 – 1929) was Ukrainian novelist, art theoretician, theoretician of cinema,
critic and publicist. He was a member of famous organization of Ukrainian
futurists “New Generation”. He worked on Odessa cinema factory of VUFKU also.
Skrypnyk as theoretician of cinema at first time wrote in magazine “New
Generation”. He shows in these articles problems of cinema and situation in
Ukrainian cinema. He wrote about new Ukrainian directors and they films too.
1928 Leonid Skrypnyk published his book “Essays about theory of cinema art”.
This book is a serious scientific research about cinema as a new art with new
own cinema language. In this book he described all art expression tools of
cinema. In “Essays about theory of cinema art” Leonid Skrypnyk built the theory
of specific cinema language. The rhythm is
a one of important elements in this theory.
rhythm existence Leonid Skrypnyk describe as element of frame composition and as element of editing. In first situation the function
determined the view of frame. In second situation the function of rhythm determined the view of episode.
in one part of this theory Leonid Skrypnyk studies the rhythm as component of formal frame
composition. He determines some types of this rhythm
and analyzes situation in composition of frame with them.
The first type of formal frame composition rhythm
is the dynamic rhythm. There are two different versions of dynamic rhythm. In
first version the motion uses length of the frame. In second version the motion
uses the depth of frame. In both versions very important another components of
motion (object is moving into the deep of frame or from the depths of frame,
the speed of the object, it size and other characteristics).
The second type of formal frame composition rhythm
is the static rhythm or imaginary-dynamic rhythm. There are two different
versions of static rhythm too: concept imaginary-dynamic rhythm and perceptual
imaginary-dynamic rhythm. All this rhythms are appearing in process of
“Essays about theory of cinema art” by Leonid Skrypnyk is a book about specific
problems of cinema language as language of new form of art.
POTENTIAL OF INTERSCIENTIFIC CONNECTION: EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE OF LATE 19TH
– FIRST HALF OF 20TH CENTURY
considers the potential of interscientific connection in Ukrainian humanistic
studies at first half of the 20th century (based on heritage of S.
Analysis of the
specific of theoretical and methodological orientations of modern scholars
reveals their obvious pluralistic orientation that largely characterizes the
dynamics of humanitarian knowledge development on the edge of 20th -
21st century. However, one approach undoubtedly won special status
and largely influenced the logic of movement and defined range of relevant
theoretical issues. This is the interscientific connection that proves its
performance for quite some time.
novelty of the article is that it is a first time when theoretical potential of
heritage of S. Balei have stimulated its co-opting in a broader aesthetic
context and, in particular, made it possible to focus on the specifics of the
formation conceptual apparatus of aesthetics of first half of the 20th
potential of interscientific connection, the attention should be paid to at
least two important facts that contribute to the need for its application. On
the one hand there are some problems, the specifics of which require engaging
the experience of various sciences, on the other interscientific connection
allows thinking and rethinking scientific heritage of leading European
scientists of the first half of the 20th century, among which the
prominent place is given to achievements of Stepan (Stefan Maksym) Balei
"On the psychology of work of Shevchenko", "New idealism of
Aiken", "Essay of psychology", "Concept of ethical good and
evil in modern philosophy" and others highlight the powerful use of
literary, cultural and aesthetic approaches. One of the most notable features
of scientific papers of S. Balei is their clear orientation on implementation
of interscientific connection that defined the originality of humanitarian
project of scientist.
At present, it
is important to implement systematization of problematic of scientist.
Scientific achievements of S. Balei includes such areas of knowledge
as: philosophy, history of philosophy; issues of ethics, aesthetics, culture
studies; experimental psychology, psychological technique; general psychology;
developmental psychology; child psychology, youth psychology; educational
psychology (psychology of education); personality psychology; the psychology of
self-knowledge and self-education; psychology of creativity and psychology of
the creative person; psychology of crime; social psychology; philosophy of
education and training.
list of problems leaves no doubt that the heritage of S. Balei without
exaggeration can be considered as scientific Klondike, which will provide
theoretical exploration in different areas of modern humanities.
methodological potential of scientific achievements of S. Balei lays the
foundation for research also in fields of other problems, for which ways of
studies were only outlined within this article. In particular, it relates to
the notion of hedonism, considered by scientist in work "Concept of
ethical good and evil in modern philosophy".
cited by researcher in his works, once again demonstrate the potential power of
interscientific connection, implemented in heritage of S. Balei, and stimulate
modern scholars to thinking.
Testing of some
aspects of the scientific achievements of S. Balei indicates strong theoretical
and methodological possibilities that opened up in the analysis of his key
concepts. It not only shows the importance of activation of interscientific
connection in modern humanistic studies but also the need to rethink the
heritage of leading European scientists, whose potential is inexhaustible.
In 2014 on the
world screen it has been shown one of the most prominent recent Russian films,
"Leviathan" by Andrii Zviagintsev.
Leviathan is a
sea monster, against which the biblical character Job fights. In the film this
image appears as a metaphor of soulless government that destroys man, his
personality and the very human nature.
The plot of film
is pretty simple. The protagonist, car mechanic Nikolai Sergeiev (actor O.
Serebriakov) lives with his wife and son from the first marriage in a small
town on the shores of the Barents Sea. Everything seemed typical. But then unexpected
trouble comes in quiet life. The mayor of a town Sheveliat is immoral man,
corrupted by power, he seeks to take Sergeiev’s house, garage and land for a
purely symbolic price for which it is impossible to buy an apartment in the
town. The mayor, the prosecutor and police chief act as a united front, which
joins the local bishop, so-called "spiritual" deputy of criminal
"lawlessness" which instructs the mayor to "show strength".
And the mayor of shows it, at first killing Sergeiev’s wife, then on fabricated
evidences arresting him, convicting up to 15 years imprisonment, and giving his
son to another family, confiscating personal property.
In the work of
A. Zviagintsev more and more determined critical motives. There is a simple
man, who is alone in the world of injustice and indifference, who never seek
truth and protection neither in government institutions nor in the church.
Why did it
happen? Perhaps partly because the state – the kingdom of Caesar and the Church
– the kingdom of the Spirit become to take functions that are not inherent for
them. At the time, a prominent philosopher Berdyaev in his article
"Nightmare of evil good" (1926) noted that the state should and can
limit the evil in the world, stop signs of a certain kind of evil will. But the
state cannot deal with internal source of evil, moral weaknesses of people and
society. Only the Church can fight with internal origins of evil and defeat it.
One of the major achievements of Christianity was the limitation of absolute of
state, the opposition of infinite nature of the human spirit to absolute attack
of the kingdom of Caesar.
But the church
also takes not inherent for it functions. This is the so-called Russian
"political orthodoxy" - fusion of policy and religion, when instead
of restraining the absolute power, church elite strongly supports it in low
acts. Therefore, the earthly and heavenly cannot be mixed, if it happens, comes
apocalypse, end of the world if not the material, the spiritual sure.
sociologists and psychologists are increasingly talking about the anomie of
Russia, the process of destruction of the value system that caused by the
crisis of society, the contradiction between the stated goals and the inability
to implement them most. This condition is showed in the alienation of human
from society, in apathy, in disappointment in life, in alcoholism, drug
addiction, crime and criminality etc. Of course, anomie can and must be fought,
especially by the art, creating positive images, giving spiritual guidance.
Movies of A. Zviahintsev obviously contrast with invasion of subculture, which
absorbs more and more Russian and not only Russian society. Characters of his
films are controversial, the director insists on the complexity of human
nature, its duality, offering viewers the draw conclusions by themselves.
is highly praised abroad, but it split Russia itself. It was accused of hatred
for the country, its people, slandering the Orthodox Church and so on. And the
fact that such a bitter film was created in Russia shows that there are people
who are looking out of the spiritual crisis and therefore everything is not
ACADEMIC BULLETIN OF KYIV NATIONAL KARPENKO-KARYI UNIVERSITY OF THEARE, CINEMA AND TELEVISION
Halyna Mylenka Lessing’s drama theory in context
of aesthetics and art study
Chronotope of A.Chekhov’s
plays staging (Ukrainian experience in practical context of the east european theatres of the 1970s –
beginning of 1980s)
Oksana Palii Yuliysh Slovackyi’s
dramaturgy on stage of Maria Zankovetska Theatre:
before problem statement (1920s)
Svitlana Maksymenko Yosyp Stadnyk: unknown pages of creative biography (1941–1942)
Lilia Bevziuk-Voloshyna The change in the dominant visual performances
in Ukrainian postmodern (postdramatic) theater
Oksana Moussienko Avantgarde: aesthetics radicalization
heroes of «Napoleon» (Slavic trace in cultural
heritage of France)
Iryna Zybavina Cinamaarchetypic as a core of screen narrative
Oksana Moussienko-yongest Producer take the prize
Daria Zoloieva Aesthetics of absurd as the element of Kira Muratova’s cinema world
MODERN MEDIACULTURE SPACE. PROBLEMS OF
Volodymyr Horpenko The historical dynamics of terminology in modern screen arts (O. Dovzhenko. Theoretical views)
Serhii Marchenko The view on the cinema language in the
linguistics metatheory context
Larysa Naumova Internet and screen artistic performances
Halyna Pogrebniak Fenomenon of authorship in cinama art: traditions and
Layth Kadhom Prolegomena to extreme documentary
Oleksandra Shapoval Creation of virtual reality in screen
Olena Onishchenko Modern Wilde studies: potential of eternal
Kateryna Stanislavska Modern performative practices: depiction
or theatricality? (The works of Marina Abramovic)
Roman Rosliak Role of Yuri Tiutiunnyk
in establishing of VUFKU editorial
sector (materials and documents)
Liudmila Novikova Case on «counterrevolutionary
activities» of actor Mykola Nademskyi
Oleksandr Bezruchko First Kyiv students of M. P. Verkhatskyi
Kateryna Yudova-Romanova Business games as a method of interactive
teaching in process of training of theatre art bachelors: production of new performance
Andrii Doroshenko Dovzhenko without makeup: letters, memoirs, archival findings
Liudmyla Novikova Screen world of Serhii
Roman Rosliak Musienko Oksana Stanislavivna:
materials on biography
Lessing’s drama theory in context of aesthetics
and art study approach
The new worldview paradigm of
Enlightenment has defined powerful development not only in science, but in all
areas of human knowledge. In particular, in the field of theory of drama there
is active renewal of theoretical framework of dramatic art. This is due to the
fact that the reflection of life of «natural man», according to the new worldview demands,
requires new understanding of the whole system of dramaturgy artistic means,
its main stylistic features and developing new forms and principles.
In 18th century in Germany drama
theory was overwhelming field of aesthetic and art studies considerations of
philosophers, art historians and artists. However, the first full-fledged
research on the theory of theatre art was Lessing drama theory, which was the
starting point for further development in exploration of Goethe, Schiller, and
Kant. Substantiation of basic aspects of dramaturgy and theater art in Lessing’s
works not only laid the foundations of realistic drama theory, but also
reflects the general direction of philosophical and aesthetic benchmarks in
Lessing considered theatre as the
most effective form of implementation of new ideas in the public consciousness.
All researchers refer to his aspect of enlightener’s thoughts and therefore the
article analyzes the works of those Lessing studiers who emphasize special
attention on it (O. Anikst, V. Asmus,
V. Hryb, A. Hulyha, G.
Friedlander and others).
In the context of art types
specific considered the analysis of Lessing’s grounding of drama features in
the study of R. Ingarden that co-opts the
enlightener’s drama theory not only in art, but also in aesthetic plane.
In studies of the theoretical heritage of Lessing, researchers distinguish his
provision on dramatic action, the specifics of which determines the specificity
of drama «as the most active form of poetry» (J. Altman, O. Anikst,
R. Ingarden, B. Kostelianets,
F. Mehring, B . Kemenov,
G.W. Friedemann, G. Friedlander).
Characterological features of drama – structure,
composition, construction of image system, the nature and function of drama –
understood in thoughts of Lessing (J. Altman, O. Anikst,
V. Asmus, K. Borynskyi, V. Kemenov, B. Kostelianets, D. Lukach, P. Pavi, G. Stadnykov, G. Friedlander).
As the dominant of drama theory of German scholar almost all researchers define
his views on the creation of a dramatic character (J. Altman, O. Anikst, B. Gavryshkiv, V. Gryb, A. Hulyha, B. Kostelianets, M. Ovsiannykov, P. Pavi, G. Stadnykov G.
Friedlander, I. Yudkin-Ripun).
The specific aspect of the drama theory of
Lessing is his «theory of catharsis», an analysis of which examined in researches
(V. Asmus, V. Gryb, M. Erlin, K. Kenkel, P. Pavi, G. W. Friedemann, G.
Relevance of ideas and views
developed by enlightener in the field of drama theory and their
conceptualization in the article are pointed by reference to the aesthetic and
art study explorations of American scientists of the 21st century.
(M. Erlin, K. Kenkel, G. W.
Keywords: Enlightenment, drama theory, type specifics of art,
dramatic action, dramatic character, catharsis, fable.
Chronotope of A. Chekhov’s plays staging
(Ukrainian experience in practical context of the east european theatres of the 1970s – beginning of 1980s)
The article considers the search of
visual image for performances of A. Chekhov’s plays at the East European
theatre within the 1970s – beginning of 1980s.
Analysing the cooperation of stage-directors
and set designers O. Kreych and Y. Svoboda, A.
Shapiro and M. Kitayev (performances «Three Sisters»
at the Theratre «Za Branou». Prague, 1966 and Tallinn Drama Theatre named after
V. Kingisepp, 1974), the author emphasizes the fact
that the stage director conceptions of performances applied visual methods for
interpretation of a stage environment. Its evolution has been dictated by
development of the basic conflict and disclosed remote sense of the things
taking place in the characters’ lives. Being in this aesthetic course, the
theatre made possible to create self-reliant aesthetic reality leading its theme
in a performance in parallel with actor’s performance, through image-bearing
and spatial means. For actors (unlike audience) it is real environment, which
may pass self-development stages.Â
Analysing the performance «Uncle Vanya» executed by a creative duet S. Danchenko
– D. Lider at the Kyiv I. Franko
Theatre (1980) and «The Cherry Orchard» on the stage of Kyiv Lesya Ukrainka Theatre,
stage-director I. Molostova, set designer D. Lider (1980), the author points out that they have found
themselves in the thick of aesthetic transformations of the end of 1970s –
beginning of the 1980s that took place in set design, stage direction and
dialog of a classic performance theatre.
Metaphorical language of
image-bearing systems of Chekhov’s performances was supplemented with mode of
life and nature, stage action was striving for disclosure of a complex
polyphony of internal drama structure, and renewed in its rights famous
Chekhov’s «atmosphere» was intensifying its lyrical epic perception.
Spiritual world of characters, as it
was before, was critically analyzed, but something undiscovered, innermost
remained in the works.
To the author’s opinion, chronotope image-bearing systems of those performances of
Chekhov’s dramaturgy made more expressive the essential aesthetic perturbation
in the theatre arts of the aforesaid period. Performances «Uncle Vanya» and «The Cherry Orchard» had become the outstanding
phenomena of the Ukrainian theatric process, having added Ukrainian Chekhoviana to a context of pan-European stage practices.
Keywords: Ukrainian theatre, directorship,
scriptwriting, A. Chekhov, chronotype, performance
dramaturgy in the Maria Zankovetska Theatre: before
problem statement (1920s)
Thearticle detailed analysis of productions of
Yuliysh Slovackyi works,
accomplished by Aleksandr Korolchyk
in Maria Zankovetska Theatre before problem statement
in period of 1920s. Staging of Yuliysh Slovackyi’s play’s was significant
for the theatrical life of Ukraine in 1910s–1920s. Namely, plays Mazepa and Baladyna. Disposable
archival materials, notices and critical publications were used.
The article investigates little
known period of activity of Maria Zankovetska Theatre
of 1920s. The author analyses peculiarities of artistic development of the
troop, its repertoire policy and stylistic investigations. Important task of
investigation was to find out functional role of artistic Zankovetska
Theatre troop in theatric process of Ukraine.
The article gives a well-fonded survey of the life and creative work of the Aleksandr Korolchyk.
The article deals with artistic
activities of Aleksandr Korolchyk
of the 1910s-1920s in the intricate framework of social, political, and
historical processes. The introduction into scientific circulation of materials
that have never been published before makes it possible to analyze producer
dramatic theatre and artistic phenomena of the
past proceeding from the viewpoint of present-day positions and tendencies,
different aspects of Aleksandr Korolchyk
live and creative work on a larger scale.
In the article the author sets forth
the conceptual positions, relate to the interpretations of the classics modern
drama in the Ukrainian theatre of the 20th century. The stage
history of Yuliysh Slovackyi’s
Mazepa and Baladyna
of Maria Zankovetska Theatre in before problem
statement period served as a material of article.
Supposing that modern drama studies
are formed on the basis of old-established delusions and erroneous conclusions
that are deprived of authenticity, the author suggests reconsidering the
ascertained conventional judgements and the ways of
the scientific truth revelation. The innovative comparison of the history of
drama studies in Ukraine is also provided.
Keywords: Yuliysh Slovackyi, Aleksandr Korolchyk, Maria Zankovetska Theatre, period before broblem
Yosyp Stadnyk: unknown pages of creative biography (1941–1942)
For the first
time in Ukrainian theatre studies, this article investigates directing and
performing activity of Yosyp Stadnyk
(March 18, 1876, Valiava Village, now SubcarpathianVoivodeship, Poland – August 12, 1954, Lviv), the outstanding theatrical figure of the late
nineteenth and early twentieth century, during the period of his work in Lviv Ukrainian theatre – the Lviv
Opera Theatre in 1941–1942. These years were intentionally deleted by Soviet
theatre studiers (for obvious reasons) from the biography of the famous
Ukrainian theatre activist, and the artist himself was illegally imprisoned in
1947 and sentenced for «anti-Soviet activity» by the People’s Commissariat for
State Security of the USSR (NKGB) with ten years of confinement. This was the
reason for the veil of silence over his name in the Soviet theatre studies for
The history of
Lviv Ukrainian Theatrein
1941 started with two stage directions of Yosyp Stadnyk, namely «Cossack beyond the Danube» by Semen Hulak-Artemovskiy (this performance opened the theatre on
July 19, 1941) and «Oh, do not go, Hryts» by Mykhailo Starytskyi. Both of the
plays were held in the repertoire of the theatre from the first until the last
day (till June 1944), and were the favourites for
universal viewer either Ukrainian, German, Italian or
extreme working conditions in travelling theatre Yosyp
Stadnyk could organize newly created team and in
situation of the Second World War in Lviv prepare
(not perfectly, which was understandable, considering the circumstances) the
first two performances for the stage show. The next direction of «Stolen
Happiness» drama by Ivan Franko also caused accolades
in press. It unusual (in the context of the time) tragic tone was noted
particularly. The next premiere of «The Gypsy Baron» operetta by Johann Strauss
became the fourth directing work of Yosyp Stadnyk, which confirmed the universal talent of the artist
(after the already mentioned successful diverse performances).
During collaborative work in the Lviv Opera
Theatre, the relationships between the former student Blavatskyi
(as the head of the theatre) – and the former teacher Stadnyk
undergone major changes.V. Blavatskyi grew over the student he once was and into the
head of the company and his vision of thetheatre
model, methods of work with actors were very different from the ones Stadnyk had. Stadnyk believed in actors
theatre (building his plays mostly on anensemble
of skilled cast) while Blavatskyi in 1941–1944 years
dreamed of putting into practice his long-held dream of a directing theatre.
Apparently, this was the cause of their controversy. Since July 1, 1942, in
other words after the first theatrical season of 1941–1942 the director Yosyp Stadnyk does not work in
the LvivUkrainian Theatre–The Lviv
incomplete labour year, since July 19, 1941till June
1, 1942 Yosyp Stadnyk
directed five performances that confirmed the high professionalism of the
theatre artist (who did not surprize with innovation,
but provided a stable worthy professional level of performances of all genres,
from drama to musical comedy), as well as mobility of the Lviv
Opera Theatre cast, part of which formed under the influence of Stadnyk: I. Rubchak, S. Stadnikova, L. Kryvytska, V. Blavatskyi and others. We can say that the performances of Yosyp Stadnyk (1941–1942) led to
«Europeanisation» of universal viewer in Lviv, they brought up synthetic actor of drama stage (youth
developed based on the experience of skilled cast formed by Stadnyk),
laid the foundations of the new European model of Ukrainian theatre which
sought to create and created V. Blavatskyi in the Lviv Opera Theatre (even though he objected his former
teacher Yosyp Stadnyk’s
Keywords: artist, Yosyp Stadnyk, directing and
performing activity, Lviv Ukrainian theatre– the Lviv Opera Theatre, Second World War.
The change in the dominant visual performances
in Ukrainian postmodern (postdramatic) theater
of the article «The change in the dominant visual performances
in Ukrainian postmodern (postdramatic) theater».
postgraduate of Rylskyi Institute of Arts, Folklore
and Ethnology n.
The article analyzes
the trends of modern Ukrainian
set design on example of performances, which indicates a change in
the visual dominance. The author
focuses on use of performance postdramatic theater. On the example of the tandem directed by D. Bogomazov
– artist A. Druganov and director A. Zholdak the basic trends of
visual imagery Ukraine postmodern
and postdramatic theater. The aim of the study
is to fix and analyze performances in order to submit a picture of modern Ukraine set design.
In the Ukrainian theater 1990’s
there goals generation of experimental filmmakers, who found themselves outside
the traditional art, their performances have existed in the form of single
projects or short-lived studios. Few of them could survive in the wake of a
long time. O. Liptsyn, A. Kritenko,
V. Bilchenko were forced to leave Ukraine and
implemented internationally, excessive A. Zholdak
also has long exists outside Ukraine. D. Lazorko died
early. Another wave of directors: D. Bogomazov, Y. Odynokyi, А. Bakirov, S. Moyseev, W. Troitskyi still able
to occupy a prominent place in today’s theatrical process.
Directed by gradually rejected the
literary sources as the center of the play. The wording «it’s not that
Shakespeare», «not as Chekhov» disappear from the vocabulary of the younger
generation of critics, they adapt to new interpretations
of classic works, which now became merely a pretext for directing expression of
the concept. This led to a new trend in the postmodern era – postdramatic theater. A. Lypkivskyi
examining the performance of the 90s – early 2000s, wrote: «If you try to put
it another phrase, the director pulls no longer play its own territory, while
deploying its own statement in the territory of claim ‘art’».
The key to Theatre West in the late
90's book is German theater theorist H.-T. Lehmann «Postdramatic
theater», which first thoroughly examines major
changes in the theater. Lehman outlining components of postdramatic
theater: stories fragmentation, heterogeneity style hyper-naturalism, grotesque
and neo-expressionism elements.
Postmodern, and especially postdramatic
theatre in most exist on the margins of contemporary theatrical process
Ukraine. The exception is unless such artists as D. Bogomazov – O. Druganov, finding
compromises with repertory theatre and implement innovations velvety. A
more radical directors such as A. Zholdak, W. Troitskyi, A. May have to be in a less favorable
environment. This often happens through experiments with space. All
performances analyzed in the article show a change in domestic dominant visual
set design. Of course this affects the development of technology, media,
accelerated pace of life, postmodern «matrix» consciousness artists.
Keywords: visual dominant
performance, postmodern, postdramatic theater, set design.
Avantgarde: aesthetics radicalization
Unlike the first avant-garde (impressionism),
the second one has rejected all traditional genre structures, linear plot, and
conventional acting. Dadaists were pointedly denying mimesis together with the
ethical and aesthetical postulates of arts. Instead, they turned to the
world of the naivety, illogic, and paradoxical associations to demonstrate
their distrust in the society, which has been severely shocked by the World War
I. As an organized group, Dadaism has first appeared in 1916, together
with the Cabaret Voltaire (Zurich, Switzerland).The term
«Dadaism» is attributed to the poet Tristan Tsara.
In the beginning, key figures in the
movement were German «migr» painters. With time, they
were joined by French poets Louis Aragon, Paul Eluard,
Anri Breton, painters Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia, American visual artist Man Ray, and others.
Together, they issued a manifesto, full of nihilistic ideas.
Ray and others painted in diverse styles – Fauvist, Cubist, and Abstract. But
they preferred installations, which consisted out of different mechanisms and
had paradoxical names: with this, they were supposed to agitate spectators’ phantasy. They called their style a mechanomorphycal one. Duchamp’s installation
The Large Glass became the most famous of those. It had a great
influence on such cinematographers as Rene Clair. Dada painters have also
included into their installations some real things, «ready-made objects».
It is important to note that the
Dadaists were fond of androgynous images and anagrams. One of the first famous
Dada films, Le retour a la raison (1923, Man Ray) is not just a «visual
symphony of the free objects», symbolizing an absolutely new «kinetic space»,
but it is also a creative process, built upon an improvisation and a game of
chance, both of which were as important to the Dadaists, as the final result.
Mechanical ballet (1924) of a renowned French painter
Fernand Leger, is also close
to the Dadaist aesthetics. The artist gives symbolic meaning to some very
everyday life items, such as vegetable baskets. He turns them into
aesthetically meaningful objects. On the top, the real objects are being
overlapped with the triangles and circles. These represent a universal symbol
Rene Clair’s Entr’acte (1924)
is considered to be a cinematographic manifesto of the Dadaist movement.
In it, he used the ideas of Duchamp and Picabia. Both
artists have also appeared in the film. The central mood of this picture
is such of a merry chaos. We see unconventional shots of the Parisian streets;
buildings, which lose their balance and step on each other, shot with a double
exposure. One can see in it a hilarious image of the civilization, which
is falling apart.
In the epatage
episode of the Swedish ballet, Clair uses both androgyny and Duchamp’s idea of
the visions through the glass. In another epatage
episode with the funeral procession, one can find allusions to Mack Sennett and
Georges Melies. Critics often refer to this
episode as a funeral of the common sense. But the Dada authors do not
regret it. On the contrary, they assert their aesthetical recusancy by acting as the destroyers of cultural taboos,
which corresponds to the Dada concept.
Keywords: dadaism, installation, androgyny, illogic, parody.
known heroes of «Napoleon» (Slavic trace in cultural heritage of France)
«Napoleon» film, finished in 1927, is
rightfully considered to be an outstanding phenomenon not only of French
cinematography, but of the world cinematography as well. Director with
operators and technicians used many means of expression, innovative, artistic
and technological filming methods and techniques. Mobility of the camera, which
provides a subjective point of view, should be mentioned at the first place. A
triple screen, which made it possible to correlate the action in different
dimensions, was the innovation too. It allowed inserting the epic character,
represented by Bonaparte, to the violent crowd scenes.
In 1918–19, many filmmakers who tried to escape
from Bolsheviks and take shelter in the Crimea faced increasing difficulties.
In February 1920 the group of employees who worked on a film, boarded a freight
ship and left Yalta for Europe. Fates of immigrants and French are intertwined
in various joint films. Director Oleksander Volkov, artist Oleksander
Loshakov, cinematographer Mykola
Toporkov work closely with director Germaine Dulac, cinematographer Jules Kruger and others.
Founder of VeSti
concern, businessman of Russian origin Vengerov,
under the influence of «Wheel», directed by Abel Gance,
creates «an international syndicate», which included Pate company.
Vengerov proposes Abel Gance
to make «Napoleon» film with an unlimited budget.
In addition to his assistants, Abel Gance invited to work on the film the cinematographers who emigrated to France after the October coup. Director Oleksander Volkov, who was one of
the first to accept an invitation, agreed to work in the film, considering Gance a brilliant cinematographer of his time. In 1925,
directors Oleksander Volkov
and Vyacheslav Turzhanskyi
gave up the possibility of their own productions and start to work as
assistants of director Abel Gance. Artist Oleksander Loshakov and his
colleagues also begin to work in «Napoleon». Kolia Rudenko was appointed to the role of Napoleon in his
childhood. He was selected after a long search for clear type characteristics
and likeness. Prior to filming, a popular singer and colorful actor Oleksander Kubitskyi, the star of
«Kin» film, was invited to the role of Georges Danton. Mykola
Kolin played an episodic role of sans-culottes
Tristan Fleury. Abel Gance
offered artist Alexander Benois to become the art
director of «Napoleon» film. Streets were built according to his paintings, and
sceneries and costumes were made after his sketches. Construction of scenery
started with the participation of artist Loshakov.
Filming of «Napoleon» intertwined with the fate
of many immigrants, who were far from the cinematography. In summer 1925, fifty
Cossacks, dzhigits from the circus company of Sava Panasenko, participated in the battle scenes for three
weeks. They acted as the convoy of Emperor Napoleon.
In most difficult moment for the «Napoleon»,
many shareholders lost faith in Gance, accusing him
of slow work. VeSti concern asked Volkov
to make analysis of performed works and footage and present the results. In his
review, Volkov highly praised the footage. In fact,
he saved Gance, pointing to his professionalism.
During the filming, many technical problems had
to be solved. Thanks to ingenuity of Semen Feldman, camera operators and the
director succeeded in making many visual solutions and effects. Feldman helped
to place the camera on the operator's chest for the freedom of movement and
simulating actions of a man who plays snowballs. He also designed the remote
focus and «synchronized lenses», one of which serves as a viewfinder. Some
other scenes were filmed using the camera with adapted pneumatic motor mounted
on the croup of a galloping horse. This allowed Hans to implement the
«subjective camera» technique. During filming of scenes at the sea, operators
used an underwater case for the camera. Semen Feldman, expanding the boundaries
of the cinematography, invented and manufactured a device that swung the camera
like a huge pendulum clock. He developed an automatic panorama platform for
improving a panoramic shooting.
During the gala premiere, O. Kubytskyi sung «La Marseillaise», accompanied by the choir
of the National Opera. His performance was synchronized with the image on the
screen. Thanks to the work of many unidentified members of the crew, the film
about the French emperor remained the unsurpassed masterpiece in the artistic legacy
of Abel Gance.
Keywords: art direction, creative research,
historical epic, innovation, figurative-expressive
Cinamaarchetypic as a core of screen narrative
The article considers the capability
of cinematography to filling with particular images the archetypes as overpersonal preforms, planted in
collective memory of humanity. The timeliness of this topic is defined by the
perspective of researching the reasons of remarkable activation of referencing
to archetype images, which exist beyond the hierarchy of consciousness, against
the background of dominate for 20th – 21st centuries,
that is screen culture. Besides, it should be noted the purely pragmatic aspect
of researches, as far as success of screen art work directly associated with
ability of artist to comprehend and transform into personal consciousness field
the dreams, fantasies and situational models, which came from treasury of
The article investigates special
aspects of screen presentations of some classic archetypes, defined by Carl
Jung: Wise Old Man, Mother, and also dual pairs as Hero-Shadow, Anima-Animus
and others. Besides, author studies the screen transcriptions of common matrix
forms such as wandering stories and images, borrowed by cinematograph from
myths, old legends, folklore, literature sources and others. It is defines the
features of connection between dominate archetypes, actualized by screen art
work, and its genre.
The article traces in which way by
converting, transforming archetypes motifs and images the screen is able to
give quite modern sense to situations and characters created by «archetype
Considering the strengthening of the
archetypal foundations of modern screen strategies, the article introduces into
scientific use the multi-dimensional and succinct concept of cinemaarchetypic. Examined some theoretical
aspects of archetypes functioning in dimensions of cinematic reality, studied
the connection between archetype and myth, the basic mechanisms of universal
prototype functioning in cinema, studied the experience of practical
introduction of archetypal motifs and mythological characters in the screen art
works as well as some historical background of actualization of certain screen
projection of archetypes, genre principles of appeal to certain «codes» of
cultural memory of mankind.
In this article, examining the
archetypal foundations of screen narrative introduced the attempt to explore
with what different ways onscreen narrative takes the viewer into the world of
eternal truths. With reference to the particular cinema it has been shown: at
the base of each cinema narration on closer examination may be identified the
sequence of mythological, folklore or other motives as simple narrative units –
elements of transnational cultural treasury, because virtually all images,
motives and situations of concern to humanity, after all, can be reduced to
universal archetypal «denominators».
Keywords: archetype, archetypal motive,
mythological image, cinemaarchetypic.
Producer take the prize
The article examines history of the
Academy Awards and its nomination system. It describes the reasons, which
forced such Hollywood moguls as Louis Mayer, to come up with «Oscar», an award,
which would give more weight to the American cinema, underline its artistic
value, and public success.
The article studies an increasingly growing importance of producer in the
American cinema, and creation of the «system of stars», which started
influencing from the very beginning the public’s tastes and ensured commercial
success of a film. In the same time, it would have been a way too strong
assumption to say that the director was losing his weight. History of the
Academy Awards shows that there exists interrelation between the Best Picture
and Best Director awards. Sixty-three out of eighty-seven films, which
have received an Oscar for the Best Director, were also awarded for the Best
Picture. The recent year 2015 has not been an exception.
In the end of 1920s the situation in Hollywood has been quite tense. From one
side, there were emerging conflicts between the producers, directors and stars.
From another one, a whole range of issues, related to the censorship, starts to
appear, leading eventually to the imposition of the Hays Code. At
this time, Head of the MGM, Louis Mayer, suggests creating the Academy
of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences. The Academy was tasked to unify the
cinematographers, retain their high reputation and prove that Hollywood is not
just a powerful commercial system, but also a place, where the true artistic
values are being born.
Academy’s leadership was comprised out of producers, directors, actors and
screenwriters. It had its own Statute and Declaration.
Official opening of the Academy took place on May 11, 1927. Together,
they established Academy’s functions, which are still on the agenda. They are:
promoting cinema education and technological research, supporting cinema
archives, and propagating prestige of the cinema production. Academy has
also played a positive role in solving the ‘inside’ conflicts, which were
shaking Hollywood from time to time.
Thus, the Academy starts seeing need in rewarding those cinematographers, who
proved to be talented in the different spheres. It created a special Awards
Committee, which has initiated a yearly presentation of the Academy Awards,
which became lately known as Oscars. The article examines all those facts, as
well as who came up with the design of a statuette, and why had such a name
emerged at all. It mentions some true chef d’oeuvres of the world cinema which have never been nominated for an Oscar, such as Chaplin’s City
Lights, Wells’ Citizen Kane and the others. The Oscar
nominations have been elaborating with the time. For instance, emergence
of the non-English language films has livened the
competition. Producers also receive a special Irving G. Talberg Memorial Award.
Keywords: Oscar, producer, film production, directing,
Aesthetics of absurd as the element
of Kira Muratova’s cinema
The outstanding Ukrainian film
director Kira Muratova,
certainly, has secured her right to be called one of the most colorful figures
of the Ukrainian cinema. For more than forty years of career she has created
her own cinema world. The important element of this cinema world is the
aesthetics of absurd, particularly in understanding of Albert Camus philosophy
of absurd and the theater of absurd.
Albert Camus puts at the center of
his philosophy the figure of absurd human, accordingly in the artistic plane –
the absurd character. This definitely tragic character carries the main idea of
the philosophy of the absurd – the desire to
find meaning of life is faced with the understanding of lack of all meaning.
The article investigates the
elements of absurd as a characteristic of creative aesthetics of Kira Muratova. Exploring the
elements of absurd aesthetics in works of Kira Muratova, the author draws attention not only to the
philosophy of Camus, but the phenomenon of absurd drama. The basic tenets of
the philosophy of absurd – total loneliness, frustration, impossibility of
communication – has been taken as the basis of works of such absurd theater
dramaturges as Eugene Ionesco, Samuel Beckett, Jean Genet, and Arthur Adamov. But they, unlike the existentialist writers,
embodied these tenets in the formal plane, breaking the classic narrative
In films of Muratova
it is also traced not only the influence of the basic principles of the absurd
philosophy to the general idea, but their implementation in formal terms by
transforming traditional means of cinema language.
Muratova’s works are characterized by motifs
of loneliness, alienation that is traced from the first of her films, where the
characters are experiencing the existential loneliness and sense of the
futility of life.
Later in her works the director
demonstrates attraction to the high degree of conditionality, theatricality, in
some sense even specific form of clowning. If the aesthetics absurdity in first
films is realized mainly in the plane of content, general mood, partly
referring to formal expressions, in subsequent works of Muratova
it reigns over all space of movie.
One of the important elements of Kira Muratova’s cinema is
repeating of phrases and creating rhythmic substance of the text, which
gradually loses meaning. Loss of importance of words, the meaning of words,
turns monologues of the characters into the beautiful but meaningless passages
of text as if they exist outside the main action of the film. Thus Muratova’s cinema world moves more and more towards the
aesthetics of the absurd, with its emptiness, violation of logic, communication
breakdown and withdrawn characters.
Keywords: Absurd, absurdist philosophy, Kira Muratova.
MODERN MEDIACULTURE SPACE. PROBLEMS OF
dynamics of terminology in modern screen arts (O. Dovzhenko. Theoretical views)
The collected works by O. Dovzhenko contains only 232 pages reflections on the cinema
art. But from the first creative steps and polemical speech in 1927 on the
audience relationship with the author, he literally bursts and breaks radically
limit of screen capabilities, thereby defining the need to expand the art terms
are the basis of his relationship vision with the audience: the respect for the
audience mind; the danger perception in his passivity; the ability to make
independent conclusions. This O. Dovzhenko
detects parity in the cinema perception attribution; the principal feature sets
the texts subjectivism as essential features of the specific film.
As a basic methodological approach
to the process of creating O. Dovzhenko film
writing chooses principle «of living people» instead of depicting «from
memory», and general aesthetic credo expressed by the formula: the main
material of film is reality, documentary.
In principle of distinguishing the
concept of «poetics» and «poetry» on the verge of 1930s-1940’s O. Dovzhenko creates and interprets new documentary and
artistic creation method in the documentary, the quintessence of which is a
kind of symbiosis with the poetic documentary publicist tone.
There is an internal need to trace
the evolution of cinema from the first O. Dovzhenko
steps. In 1935 he typologies and specifies its forty years’ experience as being
two special types of cinematographic works, considering them as with general
aesthetic and expressive-structural components.
The historical concept O. Dovzhenko basis is a man as a subject and a driver of
development. The large number of «naked truth» like to the unshaven, dirty
ragged and shabby man, in his opinion may stifle the truth of art.
The concept of «truth» is as one of
its features – versatility playing life serves an important part of O. Dovzhenko’s philosophy of creativity. O. Dovzhenko presciently rebels against «consecration» state
machine from the Stalin’s Soviet system, canonization type of creative thinking
Dovzhenko`s multi-paradigm is the concept of
beauty in art. This question touches it in historical and epistemological, methodological,
aesthetic, artistic and expressive, moral aspects.
Theoretically O. Dovzhenko separates «beauty» from the «prettiness» (the
beauty in real life and only superficial prettiness. Overall sensitive
component plays a special role in guiding artistic outlook. He believed that no
human emotions, there can be human search for truth, and therefore particularly
suited to such frightened, sensory component as love, although with less
passion speaks about suffering.
Among the set of expressive means the
special place O. Dovzhenko film has given to colour. Fundamentally new expanding theory in cinema
becomes meaningful play of drama, and later – the philosophy of colour.
On the whole range of theoretical
interest O. Dovzhenko extends from the general
esthetical to the concrete linguistic factors: the reliability issue shown
question, nationality, ethno grafts, but close – professionally specific
«rules» scenario techniques, working with non-player, using the typical
principle, the specificity of this type of sound as quiet and more.
Keywords: cinema language, cinema perception
attribution, conceptual aspects, linguistic factors, philosophy of colour, typical principle.
The view on the cinema language in
the linguistics metatheory context
Cinema is the art that depends on
the constantly improving technologies. So, the cinema language changes too fast
for cinema theory to comprehend it fully. The film critics increasingly point
to the incompleteness and limitations of the existing methods. Partly because
of this reason, we refer to similarities between the linguistic structures and
cinema language, trying to enrich the traditional film theory with the new
The publication discusses
possibility of structuring cinema language on the approaches of Kostyantyn Tyshchenkо’s
systematic textbook «Fundamentals of Linguistics» (Kyiv: Kyiv University
Publishers, 2007). The cinema language is considered in five chapters.
Chapter I. Ethnopragmatism:
The ethno theory, wich subject is the lingua sphere
of regional, state, partial, local ethnos, is the widest perspective on a
language. Cinema language (like every languages) can
bring out to the world something special: it is the national cinema art. The
first chapter of the metatheoretical cinema
projection is the largest one, and, obviously, it should be covering the input
of every national cinema in the cinema language.
Chapter II. Aksiopragmatics: It is the
theory of dialects, wich
subject is lingua sphere of dialects, patoises and vernaculs. Just like the dialect is a narrower phenomenon
then language, every national film produces its own unique «dialects», such as
German Expressionism and the German school of historical film, American movies
of 1930's and Hollywood movies, Italian neorealism,
poetic realism of French cinema and French new wave, Polish cinema school,
Ukrainian cinema in the period of Ukrainian Photo- and Cinema Organiztion (VUFKU), Ukrainian poetic cinema, the Kyiv
scientific cinema school, Soviet cinema (pre-war, thaw period, stagnation, perestroyka), Russian cinema of 1990s, «Dogma 95» etс. This cinema language science chapter should be
considering even «smaller» than the previous division of «the cinema sphere» of
movie by different artistic directions or schools (with cinema stylistics
Chapter III. Idiopragmatic: The idiolect
theory (the subject: the idiolect theory, edits, works). It is the one step
narrower prospective than in the previous chapter: just like every native speaker has its own unique language idiolect
(«individual language pattern»: voice, vocabulary selection,
grammatical and stylistic devices), so do each film director has (or trying to
get) a unique style, depending on their own creative personality. Here we have
even smaller division of «cinema sphere» – the works of the greatest film
directors and their contribution to the cinema language (individual «cinema stylistics»).
Chapter IV. Syntactic: syntagmatic
theory and paradigms, which the subject is lingua sphere of
sentences in syntagmatic and paradigms, deals with
the language structures and the phrases elements formed by two or more words
form. Word combinations and phraseology could be found among similar items in
movie montage, the collision of at least two frames (the Kuleshov
effect). This chapter should cover the structural principles of montage, its
«cinema grammar». The syntactic dimension sometimes combines
with the semantics (symbolic) and pragmatics, it considers the influence of the
sign or combination of signs, their interpretation by the recipient (how
the means of video montage impact on the spectator’s impressions).
Chapter V. Desygnik: the theory of words (subject: lingua sphere of
words, sounds and meanings) investigates single words and their meanings,
morpheme and phoneme. This branch of linguistics is closely associated with the
laws of film frame composition (mizzen’s frame),
it is considering features of the plan, perspective, color, tone, light,
minimal movement within the frame; functions of single sounds and more. Here we
will distinguish the smallest structures that can be attributed to the film
language dictionary («cinema dictionary»).
presupposes that the ideas and principles of linguistics metatheory
will help to systematize approaches to the study of cinema language.
discusses possibility of structuring a language of movie based on approaches of
Kostiantyn Tyshchenkо’s systematic
textbook «Fundamentals of Linguistics» (Kyiv: Kyiv University Publishers,
Keywords: language of movie,
film editing, frame, metatheory, linguistics, ethnopragmatics, axiopragmatics, idiopragmatics, syntactics,
semantics, signs theory.
Internet and screen artistic
Media creativity is very popular in
Internet. The social chat and forums becomes a place of total communication and
this communication is form of creative or art.
There are many genres and forms of
digital creativity. It's a new modern model of communication, where people can
say something with help of visual images or audio-visual images. They can make
something thyself, something own. When they make it, they often use some
elements from other films, clips, TV series or photos and other. But they make
their own, new short movie. There is a new hero, a new story, a new meaning
with new ideas, a new music and sometimes new dialogues and other in it. The
old elements begin to live a new life, but they don't have completely free from
the first senses. And in process of creativity many senses are overlaying on
each other. So this new film has a lot of senses and parallels with origin
This is very interesting process of
new modern screen (or not only screen) not professional creativity. So the «not
professional creativity» it is very interesting too. It has its own aspects.
Professor V. Kisin says about not professional
creativity that it has lost in professional skills but attainments are
valuable. It's enthusiasm, sincerity, naturalness of all actions and feels.
These very important skills make possible interesting the creativity process. So
there are many brave experiments in film
editing, in sound making, in work with actors etc. in not professional screen
The digital television is developing
in Internet now too. Hromadske TV is a very
interesting example of work of digital television in Internet within new
situation in Ukraine. This channel was founded before revolution on Maidan 2013–2014. But only through revolution Hromadske TV have been making popular channel.
Hromadske TV used all possible modern
channels of information for work: phone, mobile channels, Internet, skype, stream etc. This strategy of working had been given
more effective result in revolutionary situation.
There are some new experiments in
the work of Hromadske TV. So the «stream» was very
interesting and new experience for Ukrainian TV. «Stream» is one of way of work
with online broadcast when reporters and journalists are working without
prepare for a long time.
So all work of Hromadske
TV looks if it works in stream broadcast from different places (studio, Maidan, streets, some important places etc.). It was
interesting and new experience for work in difficult situation when there are
many different events every minute, when the all is changing very quickly.
So the media creativity influences
on screen artistic spectacle now. Internet with media creativity in it and new
capabilities is making new situation for existence and development of screen
artistic spectacles now.
Keywords: media creativity, Internet,
creative, art, screen artistic spectacle.
Fenomenon of authorship in cinama art: traditions
The article examines the origins
of the problem
of authorship in art, analyzed
and compared to known scientific
approaches to the interpretation of the concept
of «author» in different eras.
The researcher points out that
despite the considerable scientific expertise in the
study of the author's artistic
work, definite problem to this
day remains actual and invalid
The study argues that the
problem of the author's cinema,
like the Auteur theory occurs
in the middle
of the twentieth
century. and connected with the activities of A. Bazen, O. Astryuk, F. Tryuffo and other representatives
of the French
Analyzing of Ukrainian and foreign
researchers in the article author
cinema expressed belief that scientists
will consolidate a number of opinions
on what the
director-writer must necessarily
be unique personality, endowed with a holistic world view in
the search key and important
values, have extraordinary intelligence to be able
to disjoint perception of world
view and a generalized image of man in
The researcher suggests that the
origins of models of authorship
in the film
can be found
in the European
vanguard 20s of last century, which
reflected the author's original vision and interpretation
of reality, since the desire
to recreate the artistic view
of the world
means that would reflect a subjective principle of their creators
The author reveals the reasons
that motivate contemporary artists need freedom of
creativity in implementing their own view of
the world, own cinematic model,
which, however, does not guarantee
the birth of works that
are not only
specific artistic and aesthetic but
Researcher identifies the specific features
of Ukrainian cinema copyright, which is reflected
national outlook, which appears as
a catalyst aspirations director author in search of
values. The article states that the difficult
economic situation Ukrainian film industry, connected with the lack
of government support, the inability
to show the
film in cinemas,
helped out and hardening young
kinoavtoriv in international cultural space.
Analyzing shaped structure and means
of expression A.Akulevych film «This is me»,
which won recognition at some film festivals,
researcher inclined to think that
the director has not subject
cinematic playback, though boldly taken
fully cover the current topic.
Designing the basic settings author cinema of
the twentieth century some current
models of authorship, the researcher notes that relying on
them, directors sometimes tend to distortion and
not of tradition,
ignore the challenge and elementary
functions of art, according to which a work
of art must
contain certain knowledge of reality.
In the article
expressed the belief that the
modern Ukrainian cinema is a significant
creative potential realization of the author's personality.
Key words: copyright movies, individuality, personality, expressive means.
Leon Layth KADHOM
Prolegomena to extreme documentary
This article is about documentary practice in extreme
contexts, something new in both history and theory of documentary filmmaking.
We will focus on the specific problems arising when directing and producing
films in extreme conditions and try to put forward several parameters, which
will allow us to categorize this new film genre. To illustrate this new
distinction of filming in extreme conditions, we will analyse two films
(documentaries) made in areas with little or no security such as Iraq.
The proposed consideration relates to particular forms
of extreme documentary. Extremely sharp modern world view contradictions change
the nature of modern documentary cinema. As a result, more screen space is
filled with images of stunning events, military conflicts and disasters. The
removing methods in "extreme pictures" are fundamentally different
from "classical removing". The stay filmmaking in conditions of
extreme fixation associated risks. To fill the visual range most commonly used
shots quickly captured on camera or mobile phone, most participants, not
experts. These materials tend to have certain artistic criteria therefore
subject to special oriental study. However, the problem of modern media
operation, the analysis of the specific documentary evidence of the widespread
use of such personnel. All this requires a separate study, and world cinema
theory before it uses the term "extreme documentary", although
potentially "Extremity embryo" exists from the first attempts to
capture a moving moment on film. And due to the fact that the term as the range
of films of this type of audio-visual works, is not specified not specified
there is a need to consider the basic parameters of their types. On the one
hand – the subject-object orientation generic thematic mapping, on the other
peculiarity of artistic and aesthetic principles in the specific means of
expression have been considered.
In terms of contextual semantic extreme movies to
documentaries, from our point of view have been included:
1) The films made in war, revolution, armed conflict;
2) The films about the disaster (fire, flood,
3) The films made under the supervision of
4) The films made in extreme geographical locations,
underwater at great depths, north or south poles, etc.
In terms of features used artistic and aesthetic
principles, specific expressive means to screen this type of documentation have
1) The film director's radical interpretation and
style in the acute topic development;
2) The films with a strange, very strange story;
3) The films of perverted sex, brutal violence;
4) The experimental films surreal, sophistic, Dadaist
These documentaries are the original evidence or
discovery of the life truth (and not mounted illusion) correspond to a
particular aesthetic principle "is not an invention and discovery» (S. Krakauer).
The analysis reveals that such films that they have a
number of specific components related to limiting risk in the director:
1) The choice of theme is based on the well-known
stories from acquaintances;
2) The selection of safe places shooting;
3) The non-interference in the events director,
shooting a newsreel; the aesthetic manifested mainly through the emotional
content of the frame;
4) The large part of the shooting at night or in the
interior of the roof is very steep, fleeting shooting on location filming with
extensive use of motion (traveling);
5) The cinema group using in small part;
6) The cheap production, the minimum duration of the
7) The lack of scenario;
8) The extremely difficult, extreme conditions.
Keywords: extreme film,
extreme shooting conditions, documentary.
Creation of virtual reality in
The article is devoted to the
displaying of concept of virtual reality in the cinema by facilities of
computer transformations. Also considered for the invention
and establishment stereo (3D) technology in film. Sign films are the
research object about virtual reality, where computer graphics are used.
In the film virtual reality is
represented in different ways: as drug addicts escape from pain, rejection
everyday existence; as a virtual world whose inhabitants perceive it as
reality; designed as a parallel universe in the digital environment, access to
which users receive through special devices connected to the computer. With the
advent of digital technologies new prospects open up for artistic development
of virtual reality, where the boundaries between virtual and real images
gradually disappear. Mixing cinema and multimedia technologies leads to the
emergence of a new stage of screen arts, which increases the involvement of the
recipient in the audiovisual space, increasingly realized the effect of
presence in virtual reality.
Stereo technologies enable the
creation of virtual image when the recipient is experiencing the reality of
happening on the screen. Spectators from all sides surrounded
by multi-channel sound and three-dimensional image that reinforces the
impression of staying in the virtual screen space. Modern stereo
technologies are new expressive means extending acoustic and visual space of
the film, creating a third dimension in the cinematography plane. Special
effects, graphics and multichannel audio technologies have definite way of development
and growth before taking the forefront in the creation of films. Important
steps were the emergence of non-linear montage, morphing, composing,
motion capture, virtual camera and others technologies that enabled any subtle
transformation of screen time and space, and the creation of virtual objects
with photographic code of image. Now directors have full control and the
ability to silently change / replace / creation in the middle of the frame and
in their combination. An example are the «Avatar» by
J.Cameron and the «Alice in Wonderland» y T. Burton. There has counter
process: stereo affect to the artistic component of cinema and new aesthetic
needs of spectators cause the opposite effect on machinery of cinema. Technical
innovations resulting in new artistic and aesthetic qualities in the film, have an impact on the creation film image and creative
process in general.
Keywords: virtual reality, computer technologies,
cinema, computer, stereo film, 3D film.
Modern Wilde studies: potential of eternal return
The period of «non-classical
humanities», which formed a new theoretical and methodological paradigm
revealed tendencies that showed attraction of scientists to rethink the
classical heritage, as its depth and power stimulate new generation of
scientists to research, allowing to look at different angle on the problems,
which it would seem has thoroughly investigated.
Therefore, today the practice of
«eternal return» becomes more actualized, with no claim to the official
«methodological status» at the same time it allows to clearly define the
landmark of relevant scientific exploration. The proof of eligibility of our
position is the increased attention to the phenomenon of aestheticism
that has recently seen quite impressive. The reasons for this interest are
clear enough, as this outstanding and multiple-aspect phenomenon provides
endless opportunities for research. It would be no exaggeration to say that
aestheticism is trans-cultural in its essence, given its interdisciplinary
potential, theoretical and practical parity, implementation of fundamental
principles in various forms of art and so on.
Analyzing features of understanding
the aestheticism it can be found obvious trend that is quite natural: the
movement from general to individual actualizes the use of personalistics
approach, in the epicenter of which as usually is the personality of O.
Wilde. The article emphasizes the desire to capture the legacy of the
artist, with special attention on his theoretical thought, public activities,
and the exploration of other scholars who offer their options for considering
life and heritage of this great representant of
aestheticism. It was the third of mentioned aspects that led to the
implementation of such research as the ideas of other scientists are expanding
the limits of analysis, serving as a kind of mediator between the ideas of O.
Wilde and the author's model of understanding his life and legacy.
Virtually all scholars in the area
of which turns the figure of the English artist consider his artistic works,
theoretical works, lecture activities in close connection with personal life,
because, as pointed O. Wilde himself: «My talent I put in work and genius in
life». This landmark is inherent for two studies, to which we appeal in this article
– «Oscar Wilde, or Truth of masks» by J. de Langlade (1999) and «Oscar Wilde»
by R. Ellmann (2012).
The analysis of certain ideas of the
authors of these studies allows isolating of unexplored or at least less explored
aspects of O. Wilde personality, conceptualization of which once again proves
the relevance of potential of «eternal
practices: depiction or theatricality?
(The works of Marina Abramovic)
Performativity — in a broader context — means the
contents match the shape of its manifestation, when text or performance is not
a statement about something, but the demonstration that carries this message.
Performance — specific action performed on
the defined plan one or more participants invited to the public; a living
visual procedure composition with symbolic attributes, postures, gestures,
actions. In addition to being in real time, as a kind of public action,
performance can also be demonstrated through photographic and video
Performance has four components are
required: it is performed in a certain place for a certain time, the basic material is a body artist, and
purpose — communication with the audience.
Actions that occur during the performance
may go beyond the generally accepted ethical standards: provocative, shocking
are the aesthetics elements of this art form.
practices occurred in 1960–70. The artists resorted to
unprecedented techniques still deliberately shocking the audience stupidity,
cruelty and sadomasochism their actions raised the theme of identity, life and
death, sexuality, health and disease, violence and discrimination.
— the world-famous artist performer from Yugoslavia, which since 2005 lives and
works in New York.
In the first phase of creativity in the
first half of 1970s she distinguished solo performances, which explored the
possibilities of own body and mind. The first known Abramovic’s
performance considered «Rhythm 10» (1973): Marina laid out in front of 20 knives and turns than stuck between
spaced fingers as fast as she could, simultaneously recording to tape sounds
while there. After each hit on the arm, she changed the knife. When all the
knives over, Abramovic has included repeated
recording and performance in the same sequence, following the rhythm of writing
and hurting herself at the very moment when it occurs on the film — thus
symbolizing the meeting of past and present. Also I want to mention «Rhythm 0», «Rhythm 5» (both 1974) and «Lips of Thomas» (1975).
The second stage in Abramovic’s creativity related to personal and creative
alliance with the German artist Ulay begins in 1976.
The artists focused on the topic maximum merging of man and woman experienced themselves: running in the space of the room, bumping each
other («Relations in Space», 1976); 17 hours sitting tied together with own
hair («Relations in time», 1977); naked bodies were holding a large mirror on
both sides («Proof of balance», 1977); shouting at each other to complete
exhaustion («Aаа-aaa», 1978); standing in front,
holding in maximum proximity index fingers («Point of contact», 1980) and
It should be noted that in many Marina’s performances — both solo and paired with Ulay —
we take naked body. It is not shocking — it is an absolute demonstration of
sincerity and human vulnerability.
Their last joint work was the «Walk on the Great China Wall» (1988) to meet each other.
The third stage of the Abramovic’s
creativity began with theatrical experiments, but Marina did not leave
performance. For performance «Balkan Baroque» (1997) the artist received the «Golden Lion» Venice Biennale.
Also in these years, Marina works with the
concept of performance, its exposure and persistence. In
2005 the artist presented at the Guggenheim Museum in New York a series of
performances «Seven easy pieces», where repeated 5 performances of other artists and
two of her: each performance lasted 7 hours and the entire project — 7 days.
Marina are directly involved in the
preparation and holding of castings large projects retrospective devoted to her
own work: in the US (2010) and Russia (2011). The first such retrospective
exhibition was held in 2010 at New York Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). Within three months the museum exhibited
photographic and video documentation project by Marina in different years, and
some performances were reproduced in the exhibition showrooms by extras
volunteers. This retrospective show the artist’s work was combined with the
actual performance, which was named «The Artist is Present»: 6 days a week, 7
hours a day Marina still sitting on a chair in MoMA, and anyone wanting
could sit on a chair and sit in front of her as anything, silently looking into
Performance of Marina Abramovic — is not just a mental and physical design, which
the artist creates in front of the audience at a particular time and a
particular place — a concentration of body and mind, this dialogue is the
energy that occurs between the artist and the public. Finally, performance of
Marina Abramovic — this is her life.
Conclusions: The important
characteristics of performative practices are depiction corporeality and creative communicative.
Performance today — is the sincerest form of art because it is here and now,
presenting the artist’s personality in the present space and present time. This
is the main difference between theater and performance: the viewer and the
artist are real and not illusory world. Moreover, modern theater and
theatricality acquire new forms today have performative
characteristics that predict performativity of theater.
Role of Yuri Tiutiunnyk
in establishing of VUFKU editorial sector (materials and documents)
The article analyzes activities of Yuri Tiutiunnyk within Secretary of
VUFKU editorial sector.
Most of the people know Yuri Tiutiunnik as a military leader, an active member of
pro-Ukrainian independence movement of 1917-1921. In November 1921, he led the
Second Winter campaign, which aimed to raise in
Ukraine peasant uprising against the Bolsheviks. After General’s defeat he
moved to Poland.
As a result of Ukrainian KGB special
operations Tiutiunnik Yuri was arrested during his
stay in Sovient Ukraine.
Kremlin leadership required to
execute Tiutiunnik. But he found defense in Ukraine.
This was done in order to use it in the future political and propaganda
After his release from
was engaged in literary work and wrote the book «With the Poles against Ukraine».
He starred in the movie «PKP», where he played himself.
Together with Mike Yohansen wrote the script of the
film «Zvenyhora». In this scenario, Oleksandr Dovzhenko withdrew his
also served as a secretary of the editorial sector VUFKU in Kharkiv,
sending the script to the editorial sector, where sector members chose the future scenarios.
The author introduces the scientific
documents that tell the story of Yuri Tiutiunnyk activities within secretary of editorial sector.
These documents are stored in the Central State Archives of government of
Among the documents could be found
the meeting’s agenda of the editorial sector VUFKU on April 7, 1926, meeting’s
agenda of scenarios payment rules on June 9, 1926, and others.
“counterrevolutionary activities” of actor Mykola Nademskyi
materials of State archive of Odesa region)
(1892–1937) belongs to the phenomenal cohort of artists whose work defined the
ways of the national film acting school. Biographies of the artists influenced
their performance skills even more than the stage experience and professional
education they gained in very different ways. The turbulent beginning of the
twentieth century gave them a huge living material, which then formed the
powerful screen images. From mid 1920s M. Nademskyi
was an actor of VUFKU, but starred at other studios. Between
1926 and 1937 years he played over 50 roles in movies. His worked with
the prominant film directors – O. Dovzhenko,
I. Kavaleridze, M. Shpykovskyi, H. Stabovyi,
P. Chardynin and others. Roles in the films «Zvenyhora» (1927), «Arsenal» (1929), «Earth» (1930), «Koliyivshchyna» (1933) brought
him the world recognition.
Published the 1928 the Ukrainian cinematography
first photo album, which aimed to introduce to the international area best
forces of national screen, presented Nademskyi in the
top ten of Ukrainian actors. At the age of 45 Nademskyi
was sentenced to death on charges of nationalism and counter-revolutionary
activities. The investigative file, fabricated
by NKVD, cut short Nademskyi’s life at the highest
peak of his creative powers. A third part of the master’s screen works was not
preserved, among them – the tragicomedy «Benefice of the clown Georges»,
enthusiastically praised by Henri Barbusse.
Certificate written by the lieutenant of state
security V. Kaluzhnyi on М. Nademskyi,
names as a reason of opening investigation against the actor with orientation
from the Kyiv regional office of NKVD, according to which Nademskyi
was suspected as a member of the large spy organization. However the file does
not contain such a document. In the
investigative file only referred actor’s
counter-revolutionary nationalistic activity, while a large spy organization is no longer mentioned. It remains unclear what was the real reason for the investigation against Nademskyi’s and his arrest. The actor was rehabilitated in 1962. After Nademskyi’s arrest his name was removed from titles of the
many movies. In
case with I. Kavaleridze’s the picture
«Prometheus» was cut and destroyed the whole
episode, where Nademskyi
played Taras Shevchenko.
Name of the actor was inscribed in the works of leading art historians,
most respected foreign film archives store in their
collections the best movies with
the actor. This article reveals the truth about his last days.
First Kyiv students of M. P. Verkhatskyi
The article investigates the
beginning of pedagogical activity of the prominent Ukrainian stage-director,
specialist in drama study, patriarch of Ukrainian theatrical pedagogic,
laboratory stage-director-assistant, secretary of stage-director
staff of «Berezil», professor Mikhailo
Verkhatskyi (17.05.1904, vil. Zarudnivska
– 16.02.1973, Kyiv) in the Kyiv State Karpenko-Karyi
institute of dramatic art.
In 1952 Mikhailo
Verkhatskyi after sixteen years of the forced stay in
Uzbekistan went to Ukraine and began to work at the Kyiv State Karpenko-Karyi institute of dramatic art as the associate
professor of department of acting and directing.
In 1952 year already very sick
stage-director of theatre and cinema, teacher, honored worker of arts of
Ukraine (1946) Victor Dovbyshchenko (21.11.1910, Kharkiv – 24.09.1953, Kyiv), which yielded to persecutions
for the bold article in the Moscow’s magazine «Theatre» about the real
situation of the Ukrainian’s theatres, collected his second workshop in Kyiv State Karpenko-Karyi institute of dramatic art. However at the
beginning of the second course,
in September, 1953, after the protracted and heavy illness, Victor Dovbyshchenko died.
After this tragedy the orphaned
workshop of stage-directors and actors of theatre was led by Mikhailo Verkhatskiy, which knew
Victor Dovbyshchenko yet from the Kharkiv
The workshop of Victor Dovbyshchenko – Mikhailo Verkhatskyi graduated many famous Ukrainian figures of art.
In particular, Vadym Chubasov,
Rodion Yefimenko, Volodymyr Lugovskyi (Lubenskyi), Leonid Zarubin and
Consider their further creative and
cinema pedagogical life. The Ukrainian stage-director of television film, honoured worker of culture of Ukraine (1976), cinema
teacher Rodion Yefimenko
(6.11.1934, Odesa – 18.03.2008, Kyiv), was
reputed by that in the first workshop of stage-directors of television film on
the cinema faculty of the Kyiv State Karpenko-Karyi
institute of dramatic art (now Institute of the screen arts of the Kyiv
National Karpenko-Karyi University of theatre, cinema
and television) whole pleiad of the known Ukrainian
and Russian artists of screen.
The prominent Ukrainian director-teacher,
specialist in cinema study, professor of cinema and TV department of the Kyiv
international university, member of the National Union of Cinematographers of
Ukraine Vadym Chubasov
(6.08.1934, Kyiv – 24.11.2007, Kyiv), is legally considered to one of masters
of Ukrainian school of television directing.
Summarizing foregoing, it is
possible to mark that scientific tasks are
put executed: beginning of pedagogical activity is investigational in
the Kyiv State Karpenko-Karyi institute of dramatic
art of former «Berezil», laboratory
stage-director-assistant, secretary of stage-direct or staff of «Berezil»
Mikhailo Verkhatskyi; there are brought reasons, as a result of which
students of the second course of workshop of Victor Dovbyshchenko
led by Mikhailo
is told about creative achievements of students of Mikhailo
Nevertheless the prospects of
scientific researches remain large, as the scantily explored is remained by
further pedagogical activity of Mikhailo Verkhatskyi in the Kyiv
State Karpenko-Karyi institute of dramatic art.
Business games as a method of interactive
teaching in process of training of theatre art bachelors: production of new performance
Business game is a
complex, multi-functional act, within which several interrelated activities are
combined: analysis and research for problem solving, learning, development,
research, consulting, formation of collective activity and collective
creativity. Business games based on pre-designed scenario that is aimed at
solving standard problem situations and intended to teach the participants of
the game to look for the best solutions for problems. Business game is used to
consolidate the theoretical knowledge that students acquire during lectures,
seminars and workshops, self-study. The use of business games while learning
allows to bring the education process closer to practice, take into account the
today realities, to make decisions in terms of conflict situations, build and
defend own proposal, develop in participants teamwork and a sense of playing in
The purpose of this
article is to offer the author’s model of business game for future theater art
bachelors, students of 3-4 years of different training areas. Subject of
business game is «Issue of new productions in theater and spectacular cultural
institutions». Proposed author's business game simulates a real situation,
happening in theatrical spectacular cultural institutions in the process of
planning of the team work on the release of new play.
The team of
participants is formed of 18 officials – director of theatrical and
entertainment businesses and heads of various departments. Each role has its
content – the type of work, the period of its implementation, special aspects
of the organization and production unit. In the process of the business game it
is made the technological and temporal analysis of every creative and
manufacturing process. They gradually entered into the schedule table.
As a result of the
interconnected links formation in the logistics chain the complicated logistics
network emerges. Analysis of time spent of logistic chains leads to the
conclusion that there are several critical chains – they have no stock of
working time or its limit generally less than necessary:
1. Precept on theater –
Technical advice – Selection of costumes and shoes for repairs – Calculation
and purchase of fabrics and accessories for costumes – Women costumes
production – Production of visual advertisements – Billing of visual
advertisements on the building facade.
2. Precept on theater –
Feast period – Rehearsals in sections – Rehearsals for the scenes and acts –
Runs – General rehearsals – Submitting – Premiere.
3. Precept on theater –
Technical advice – Production of ramp drawings – Production of ramp – Painting
of ramp – Rehearsals for the paintings and acts – Runs – General rehearsal –
Submitting – Premiere.
4. Precept on theater –
Technical advice – Choosing of electric light equipment – Acquiring of electric
light equipment – Production of effects equipment – Charging of lightning
scenery – Runs – General rehearsals – Submitting – Premiere.
The business game by
simulating particular situation gives the opportunity to develop the methods of
problem solving. It has hard structure and rules, its
main function is to develop skills and abilities of adequate behavior in
ACADEMIC BULLETIN OF KYIV NATIONAL KARPENKO-KARYI UNIVERSITY OF THEARE, CINEMA AND TELEVISION
Topos of Lviv as Ukrainian discourse in the play «Lwowianka, królowa Gołkondy, czyli
Finfa w obrotach» by Y. N. Kaminski on the stage of Polish theatre
in Lviv (1829)
Activities of UNR State theatre in
Kamianets-Podoilskyi of the 1919–1920
Shevchenkiana by Volodymyr Blavatskyi in professional theaters in Ukrainian
eastern Galicia in interwar period
The play «Taras Shevchenko» by Yu.
Kostiuk produced by Volodymyr Skliarenko in the Lviv Youth M. Gorkyi Theatre 1945
Choreography rethinking of known examples of ballet
theatre by Oleksii Ratmanskyi
Theater and alchemy: the case of Mircea Eliade’s theatrical «appeals»
Set designer or director: the priority of the
authorship in modern theatre
Religious theme on
screen: spiritual aspect
Authors cinema in
context of existential philosophy
directing of extreme documentary film
Reflection of Holodomor
tragedy in modern Ukrainian cinema
Cinema-pedagogical and research activity of G. O.
in Odesa and Kyiv
Specific features of documentary cinema development in
Ukraine in context of genre specificity of art
Epistolary of S. Freud and A. Einstein: pacifism
Yashka-Buksyr, Mishka-Yaponchyk, Popandopulo:
tricksters of «Odesa myth» in performances of Vodianyi music comedy theatre
Polymorphism of balls
The mythologem of
androgyne in Marc Chagall’s theatre
TO THE BEGINNING
OF VUFKU ACTIVITIES
of genesis of Ukrainian national cinema and
activities of VUFKU
Heads of VUFKU. Pages of Ukrainian cinema history
Thematic planning in Ukrainian cinematography of VUFKU
Discourse of Ukrainian avant-garde in magazine «Cinema»
One of the forgotten Ukrainian film critics
The work by A.
Dovzhenko: The beginning of Ukrainian poetic cinema
Mythological motifs and archetypes of world culture in films of Heorhii Stabovyi,
Heorhii Tasin and Oleksandr Dovzhenko
Pohrebniak H. P. Author cinema in the light of
Braterska-Dron M. T. Fantastic fiction: philosophical
Materials on history of Ukrainian cinema (1991–2011).
Ed. 1. Publications in research collections and materials of conferences:
Topos of Lviv as
Ukrainian discourse in the play «Lwowianka, królowa Gołkondy, czyli
Finfa w obrotach» by Y. N. Kaminski
on the stage of Polish theatre in Lviv (1829)
article is dedicated to review of little known drama text of comedyopera «Lvivian,
the Queen of Holkonda» opened in 1829 on the Polish theatre stage in Lviv.
The analysis of Ukrainian discourse that is present on the given play is
analyzed in Ukrainian theatre studies for the first time.
introduction, the history of creation of the plot about amaryllis Alina who
found herself in exotic country Holkonda is reviewed. The author of this
literary fairytale is famous French poet of Rococo Stanislave-Jean de Bouffleur
(the text was printed in 1761). In the second half of 18 c. – first part of 19
c. number of operas and ballets based on this plot were created, particularly,
in German, French, British, Russian, Italian theatres. The plot was all the
vogue partially because of European high demand for colonized world, Eastern
Culture, primarily, India that was increased in Romantic Era.
spectators were introduced to opera «Alina, the Queen of Holkonda» for the
first time in performances on the Austrian stage in the beginning of 19 c.
(1808 – opera of V. Miller, 1812 – opera of P. Monsigny). The play was opened
in 1822 on Polish stage based on the translation sample of Austrian theatre.
The translator of «Alina…» into Polish is still unknown. Probably it was
Polish theatre manager – famous playwright and actor Yan Nepomutsen
One way or
another, he was the one who used this translation in 1829 for remake. Modified
text was titled «Lvivian woman, the Queen of Honkonda or Adventures
of Finfa». In the process of adaptation the system, names of characters and place
settings were changed. Alina, the Queen of Holkonda and her beloved man «Galician
knight at Turkish Embassy» called Filip in this version became Lvivians. The
closest Alina’s friend Zelian became a countrywoman from Kolomyia raised in
Lviv. Y. N. Kaminsky created four different comic characters to intensify
comedy genre and Lviv atmosphere: hairdresser Chalapailo from Lychakiv (suburbs
of Lviv), his son Matsko, barber Finfa presented in two persons – as an adult
and as a child.
act in the original version took place in the pastoral French Provence and in
the remake was moved to Lviv. Y. N. Kaminsky chose one of the Lviv outskirts –
so called Tsetnerivka. Along with topos of Lviv outskirts in the adaptation of
Y. N. Kaminsky one can see the ethnos brought into attention as well. Ethnos is
presented both visually and verbally by Ukrainian language, Ukrainian songs,
Ukrainian characters who were residents of Lviv fabourg. In the scene 9 act 2
we can hear terzetto and some dialogues of characters in Ukrainian language,
also Polish-Ukrainian dialogues are present there, when the main character
Filip talks Polish and peasants answer in Ukrainian. The scene is finished with
Ukrainian dance – most likely kozachok – accompanied by Ukrainian song.
It is noteworthy that according to the demands of that period Ukrainian songs
are written in Roman lettering. They can be identified as art songs, not folk songs
but created in the style of folk genre with «Kolomyika» rhythm
pattern that was popular at that time. Special features of «Ukrainian
scenes» are: intermediality, musicality, humour, elements of satire on Polish
rich people («роles»). «Lviv act» was finished with live picture against the background
of St. George
Cathedral – the symbol of Ukrainian Lviv, metropolian Creek-Catholic church and
traditional place for one of the biggest fairs in Lviv.
final part of the article on the basis of manuscripts sources the date of the
first show was analyzed and named – March 2nd 1829. The presence of
the play’s title on the affiche of Lviv Polish theatre road tour in Krakow in
the summer 1829 is indicated as well as further performances that took place in
Lviv in 1852. Names and surnames of actors are presented in the article
(according to the affiche of 1845) and actors who were playing «Ukrainian
characters». Moreover, an attempt was made to characterize theatrical scenery
decision and theatricals for performance of F. Polman. On the ground of
archival date the costume of hairdresser Chalapailo is described, in
particular, the «Rusyn» costume.
conclusions, author of the article underlines the importance of this
play and its Ukrainian discource in the formation of multinational cultural myth of
Lviv. Tendencies to international openness, formation of intercultural space
that later would become special features of Lviv myth in the end of 19 c. –
1930s of 20 c. partially were founded in Polish theatre work in Lviv in the
first half of 19c. The big contribution to this process was made by Polish
theatre multiannual director, playwright, actor and stage director Y. N.
Activities of UNR State theatre in Kamianets-Podilskyi of the 1919–1920
The article deals
with artistic activities of M. Sadovskyi in State theatre in
Kamyanets-Podilskyi of the 1919–1920s within the intricate framework of social,
political, and artistic processes.
In the article of
historiography there is given a well-fonded survey as to live and creative work
of the M. Sadovskyi. Folloving publication chronology, the author tells
about the scientific works, artiles, essays, that characrized Mykola Sadovskyi
as actor, director etc.
article deals with artistic activities of M. Sadovskyi in the
Kamyanets-Podilskyi of the 10–20-ss within XX centuries the intricate framework of
social, political, and historical processes. The introduction into scientific
circulation of materials that have never have been published before makes it
possible to analyze producer dramatic theatr and artistic phenomena of
the past proceeding from the viewpoint of present-day positions and tendencies,
different aspects of M. Sadovskyi live and creative work on a
conceptual comprehension of the actress work such a exactly such a publication
documentary given chronological principle. Mykola Sadovskyi is one of central
epoch-making figures of the Ukrainian cultural process of the decades of the 10–20-ss
within XX centuries.
theatre played an import and role into in social and culture life 10-20-ss
within XX centuries. In turned into place of development of the Ukrainian
language, literature, musical art. It was only place where could hear the
Ukrainian. The was the theatre Ukrainian live-giving art centre that rallied
the national public and cultural forces with in space of the then Russian
staged at the theatre turned into art actions, restored to life the national
self-consciousness and helped Ukrainians feel that they were a community with
not too many names in world theatrical culture that become its history and
still resound at present time. The name of M. Sadovskyi without a doubt belong
Shevchenkiana by Volodymyr Blavatskyi in professional
in Ukrainian eastern
Galicia in interwar period
Ukrainian theater scene in Eastern Galicia of early twentieth century the
reorientation took place in reading Shevchenko heritage: there have been some
transformation in the staging of the author's poetry and was first performed
stage interpretation of his biography.
changes began studiyets of «Berezil» Volodymyr Blavatskyi in Stanislav’s
Ukrainian National I. Tobilevych Theatre. Here he staged in conventionally
realistic form of Taras Shevchenko's poems «Dug grave» and «Subotiv». The show
was amazing, fascinated with sophisticated lighting effects, accent symbols and
ideological cornerstones, sculpted crowd scenes.
next stage-setting biographical reportage by Z. Tarnavskyi «Taras Shevchenko»
W. Blavatskyi made in 1937 in Youth Theatre «Zahrava». This original, first in
the genre of biographical Shevchenkiana, play, in which the protagonist
Shevchenko interpreted by V. Blavatskyi rather schematically presented
elaborate style of monumental theater. His production was sustained in
conventionally realistic form, boasting exaggerated, symbolic and inspirational
first of all was based on the main image of Shevchenko, whose role is played by
constantly present on stage L. Borovyk. Thanks to the three-dimensional image
of the actor managed extensively and freely deploy line role. But the
impressions of criticism, the actor could not hold it across the show and hold
out for an equivalent height. And in this case, it is decisive, in the
performance of their own individual distinguished critic and action scenes.
same time the author by the specifics of the order by trying to play Christian
also provide color (treatment – hope in the Lord of the characters, the
original Shevchenko’s prayers). And then the director was able to build a «community
theater», which means updating the personal experiences of the poet, he turned
them into the sphere of values of
national and religious identity. Therefore, this statement clearly marked the
decisive style to «Zahrava» clear national outlook, which has been thoroughly
elaborated its own formative nature of the national «catholicity».
Kotlyarevskyi Theater (1939) V. Blavatskyi with scenic image titled «Poplar»,
staged three staging by G. Luzhnytskyi romantic ballads Shevchenko «Poplar»,
«Causal» and «Downed». The director also placed the emphasis on plastic
solutions, applied cold reception of color live crowd scenes.
setting by V. Blavatskyi in three representative Ukrainian Galician theaters of
interwar period were quite unconventional: Shevchenko’s poetry staging, staging
in conventionally realistic form of biographical and stage reportage by Z.
Tarnavskyi «Taras Shevchenko» and therefore were original-modernist.
The play “Taras Shevchenko” by Yu. Kostiuk produced by Volodymyr
Sklyarenko in the Lviv Youth M. Gorkiy Theatre
of 1921 the students of the High Theater School formed a new Kharkiv children's
theater “Kazka” (eng. – “Tale”). The first artistic directors were Serhiy
Pronskyi, Mykola Siņeļņikov, Volodimyr Vilner, Borys Hlaholin,
Volodymyr Nelly-Vlad, Ivan Maryanenko. Stage design was firstly created by
Ivanytsky, Mykola Akimov, Botys Kosarev, Heorhiy Tsapok. Music was written by
Dmytro Yampolsky, Isaac Dunaevskii. Plastics and choreography – M. Pozdnyakov,
B. Pletnov, N. Rzhepyshevska (Hlan). The first actors were N. Dobrovolsky, A.
Shyllynher, Ya. Kozlovskyi, R. Kryvytska, L. Boyarska, B. Ivanov, Ye. Benhys,
N. Posen, Ye. Serdtseva , O. Snehotska, E. Smolyanova, O. Vynohradova, M. Kohan
April Plenum of the Central Committee of the ACP, Ukraine was proclaimed course
for ukrainianization. In November of 1923 the “Tales” Theater was renamed into
the First National Theatre for Children. There were some changes in artistic views
and productions as well. Renaming was an outward expression of a new theater’s
creed – “from the tales to life”. At that time the theater started Ukrainian
performances. On the 7th of November 1924 theatre held a premiere performance
“For the star” by V. Hzhytskyi directed by I. Yukhimenko. On the 13th of
February 1925 - premiere of the play “Traitor” by B. Zhytkova directed by V.
Nelli-Vlad. After the hard years of survival and a methodological search, the
First public theater for children has received public recognition as a
Ukrainian language media on the territory of Russian-spoken Kharkiv.
the First Theatre for Children was renamed again to the Kharkiv Youth M. Gorkiy
Theater. And a year after (in 1934), it was leaded by new artistic director
Volodymyr Sklyarenko, who has just graduated the Les Kurbas “Berezil”
theater-laboratory. With the advent of V. Sklyarenko, the Theater starts to get
on its feet.
the theater was evacuated. In December of 1944 by the order of the USSR government,
the Kharkiv Youth M. Gorkiy Theater was transferred to Lviv. Its first playing
season was opened on the 18th May 1945 with the performance “Taras Shevchenko”
by Yu. Kostyuk produced by the new artistic director V. Sklyarenko. Set
designer - Yu. Stefanchuk, composer - A. Shtoharenko, starring - A. Yanchukov.
It was the second theatrical embodiment of Taras Shevchenko’s image in Galicia.
The first Taras Shevchenko was scened by V. Blavatskyi in the “Zahrava” theater
in 1937. The play was written by Z. Tarnavskyi. The image of the great poet has
been implemented by L. Borovyk. During his work on the performance, V.
Sklyarenko tried to avoid the interpretation of Shevchenko’s image as an “old
man in a shroud” (as he was often painted later). V. Sklyarenko wanted to focus
on Shevchenko as an educated European poet, artist and thinker. Using no
outdated methods, V. Sklyarenko in a convincing artistic method, showed a whole
gallery of characters from different layers of contemporary society: the serfs,
maids, intellectuals, members of royal power and others. And most importantly -
in the natural environment of these characters, he showed the full-length
figure of an immortal giant Shevchenko.
In 1945 by
the Decree of the Presidium of URSR, Volodymyr Sklyarenko was considered to
become Honored Artist of the URSR.
rethinking of known examples of ballet theatre by Oleksii Ratmanskyi
One of the
topical issues of the modern choreographic process is classic dance state and
its transformation into the modern ballet performance. The basic rules of
ballet direction being formed back in 19th – 20th
centuries are in the process of reframe at present time. Choreographers, who
work today for theatres, are constrained to balance between classic tradition
and modern choreographic trends, performing skills and new figural forms.
One of the
leading modern ballet-masters, Oleksii Ratmanskyi, works in the trend of the
re-thinking of famous ballet samples. There are more than 40 original ballet
performances and many dance acts under his belt. Today he is the absolute
leader of native ballet and one of the most talented personalities of world
ballet art. The creative work of O. Ratmanskyi is the outstanding example of
modern ballet-master formation under the conditions of present-day ballet
Ratmanskyi raises classic dance on the new level by using virtuosic technical
skills of his performers in the ballet directions. He proficiently combines
classic dance with the elements of modern choreography, free plastics and
pantomime. In such a way he demonstrates the omnitude of academic ballet school
and ballet dancer.
Ratmanskyi is a ballet-master, who doesn’t keep a definite line in his creative
work. He is a dreamer, who suggests new choreographic stories by music of
modern composers; creates ballet acts, while involving classic composers. He
creates ballet performances, which can be hardly referred to definite genre.
Nevertheless he succeeds in the creation of original classical and native
ballet versions. The purpose of the article is to show the only one aspect of
his many-sided heritage, namely the reframe of 20th century ballets
by Oleksii Ratmanskyi.
features of the ballet-master, who respectfully and delicately managed to give
a new life to native ballets, have showed up in the personality of O.
Ratmanskyi. He has performed «Cinderella» by S. Prokofiev, «Anna Karenina» and
«Humpbacked horse» by R. Shchedrin for Mariinskyi theatre as well as ballet
performances by D. Shostakovich – «Bright stream» and «Bolt», «Corsair» and
«Paris flame» by B. Astafiev.
archival materials and exclusive interviews with first performers have helped
to make the detailed analysis of the first «great» ballet «Fairy kiss» by O.
Ratmanskyi, which is presented in this article. The practical implementation of
the idea of a new ballet creation on the ground of its origin has been
theoretically conceptualized on the ballet «Bolt» basis, being created by the
ballet-master for the Bolshoi theatre.
original hand of ballet-master Ratmanskyi combines the trends of modern
Western (European and American) choreography development and the best
traditions of Russian academic ballet theatre. All that makes performances by
the choreographer universal – they are acceptable and understandable all over
Theater and alchemy: the
case of Mircea Eliade’s theatrical «appeals»
article the use of theater experience in Mircea Eliade’s works devoted to the
analysis of the functioning of the phenomenon of alchemy is examined.
In Mircea Eliade’s «Forgerons et Alchimistes» it is shown that alchemists’ ideas
of progress and victory
over Nature and Time
have been used in experimental science and industrialization.
However, as a result of «industrial» ejection of the sacred attitude to Nature a change in attitude to Time has occurred.
Modern man assumes the function of Time and pays a high price
for that – the one of a secular work.
Because of desacralization and temporality the new type of civilization
has a «living wounds on the
body of modern society» concludes Mircea Eliade.
Eliade illustrates the logic of desacralization of alchemy with the model of
emergence of theater. That theatrical analogy occurs at the beginning of his
essay as it was some kind of a road map to follow his reasoning. Mircea Eliade associates the origins of drama with seasonal rituals.
But there is a significant difference between
ritual and theater. Ritual is the sphere of
the sacred. And the ideals of a profane drama are «aesthetic» emotions and perfection of form. That gap between the sacred
and the secular can not be compensated by the atmosphere of sacredness.
Because of the similar reason we can’t align alchemist activity and chemical experiment.
Eliade does not reject the presence of «spectacular» in the
sacred action. He analyzes it in his study «Mephistopheles
et l’Androgyne» («The Two and the One») with an example of a «trick with
a rope». The most important function of this trick is «cultural». It
reveals the «sacred world of magic and religion» and «stimulates the imagination and reflection». But the
trick also has a «dramatic» function. The «performance» of
magician (shaman) transforms people into spectators. The audience that watches
it isn’t physically involved in «drama» and begins to think about it.
the audience loses its cultural homogeneity. In «Forgerons et Alchimistes» Mircea Eliade gives an eloquent example of
theatrical «transition» to a variety of meanings. He quotes Ben Jonson’s
comedy «The Alchemist» that illustrates both the stages of transformation of theater and alchemy.
Alchemist» alchemy displays itself variously: as a fraud, as a mode of criminal
communication and a destructive force, but also – as a secret sacred knowledge.
That real alchemy is dissimulated by Ben Jonson and reveals itself only with a «key», hidden
in first scene. When decoded, the play becomes an allegory of the alchemical
process, where each character represents one of the metals involved in it. This
construct is also related to the theory of «humors», used by
Johnson’s comedy is not a satire on alchemy. This is a satire on transformation
of alchemical practice. The new situation of social functioning of a phenomenon
is ridiculed in it. «The Alchemist» shows a widening gap between the fundamental
objectives of alchemy and the means that are used for achieving them, the
shifting of interest in alchemy from the transcendent to the everyday life.
Thus, the play illustrates a fundamental change, which alchemy undergoes, and
at the same time emphasizes the theatrical ambiguity that drifts away from the
uniqueness of the sacred ritual.
or director: the priority of the authorship in modern theatre
theatre, that has been establishing during previous century and now takes
dominant positions, almost excepts such an important question as «who has the
authorship in a play?». Who actually creates the image, models the system of
the play, fills it up with symbols and signs, codyfies it. What subtext is the
main in the play: playing, created by the director and actors or
visualy-spatial, created by the artist (of course, the third subtext – verbal
component (drama) today more often serves just as a cause of expression)? At
the same time in the XX century «artist’s theatre» asserts itself quite loudly.
Among the artists of this school we can meet such world famous figures as E. G.
Kraig, S. I. Vitkevych (Vitkatsii), T. Rantor and D. Krymov.
the equal contribution of the director and the set designer takes place in the
creating of the play there is the cooperation and the search of the synthesis
of all of its components, then there are no reasons to isolate director’s
theatre or «artist’s theatre». For example, director A. Popov in the book
«Artistic integrity play» lead the dialog with the artists, explaining the
process of work: «I am not going to go against my idea and seeing and I am
going to defend it, but only after you will express yourself with the help of
the pencil and the point. In correlation of your and my imagination the thirds,
enriched seeing of the world of ours will be born».
tandems director – set designer are born very seldom, that is why the argument
between the set designer and the director in the leadership of the play’s
structuring is not new. Here should be mentioned, such famous set designer as
D. Borovskyi and D. Leader.
the example of Ukrainian artists and directors modern trends are researched.
Tandems director D. Bogomazov – set designer O. Druganov. S. Masloboischikov,
grapher, set designer, who moves to the theatre direction and creates the plays
himself after cinema practice. Along with such trends, which approximate to the
artist’s theatre there is the opposite movement – directors give up the set
designer’s function. For example, avant-garde directors V. Troytskyi and A.
Zholdak invent play’s visual line themselves, and they invent the artist only
for implementation of the technical plan.
director’s theatre or artist’s theatre? Either productive cooperation that
leads to the synthesis and creates shape integrity of the play or
disintegration separate areas? The bight among director and set designer or
even refusal to cooperate at all and creation of the play on can be observed
today. Everything depends on the ability of artists to cooperate. The ideologist
of the play is usually the director, but today the set designer often takes
more high-powered positions. The ambition to have an independent artist’s theatre is not stopped for today.
Religious theme on
screen: spiritual aspect
relations between church and cinema art always were complicated and ambiguous.
It was stipulated by the many factors. It should be noted that in
pre-revolutionary Russia religious subject was forbidden. The first film on
this subject «Father Sergii» («Kniaz Kasatskyi»), which was made by director
Yakov Protazanov for homonymous novel by L. Tolstoy, came on screen in 1918.
The end of 1910s – 1920s were marked by series of anticlerical propaganda films
as for example infamous documentary film «Disclosure of hallows of Sergii
in time of statement of Stalin’s dictatorship the conflict with church became
more violent and implacable. All means of criticism of religion were used and
authors obviously derided priesthood: «Happiness» (1934), «Condemned» (1936),
but kept the possibility to dive into deeper social-psychological aspect –
«Bezhin Meadow» (1934).
period the silent reconciliation between Stalin and religion happened. In hard
times all means were good: saint icons that protect native land, priests who
of Khrushchev Thaw another anticlerical campaign was started. Cinematographers
react immediate on it – «Ivanna» (1959), «Miraculous» (1960).
to values of religious sense happened from the second half of 1960s – in times
of Brezhnev Stagnation. Although concept of spirituality is not reduced to
religiosity, it became obvious that values of religious sense can be guiding
star that lead human to light of spiritual ideals («Andrii Rubliov», 1966; «The
Ascent», 1976; «Stalker», 1979).
It is easy
to notate that few but outstanding references of soviet cinema to values of
religious sense in 1970s obtain in time more philosophical filling,
psychological depth and existential expanse. This rare series ends with the
film «Repentance» by T. Abuladze (1984/1987).
reference to the subject of Christian values will take its place only in 2006
in post-soviet times in film «Island» of Russian director P. Lungin.
as in may seem, but modern Russian cinematographers better do films about
absence of spirituality than about spirituality. In this aspect it should be
remained the film of Russian director Zviagintsev «Yelena» (2011).
did this failure, as it calls A. Mihalkov-Konchalovskyi, in «ethic code» of
country, in particular Russia, happened? Is this tendency come from times when
secular authorities stopped listen to moral call of church? P. Lungin for a
reason referred to this problem in film «Tsar» (2011).
church – spiritually weak state – this is historical axiom. So where it is
possible to find spiritual island of good and love? Art and before else cinema
can abase all best in human, but if it is impregnate with grain of spirituality,
it can raise human to dreamed heights of future, which depends on ourselves.
But human is too weak to solve eternal problems of existence without eternal
values – conscience, mercy, understanding, repentance, and first of all love.
cinema in context of existential philosophy
article examines the philosophical foundations of French cinema of the «new
wave». The author analyzes the origins of existentialism as a kind of
ideological model, focusing on its atheistic concept that served as the
foundation of author cinema. The paper defined the essence of the concept of
«author» in the French film «new wave». The researcher considers one of the
models of cinematic authorship, based on their discussions on the philosophy of
atheistic existentialism of Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, using as a
material for scientific research works of Francois Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard,
Claude Chabrol, Louis Malle, Eric Rohmer, Jacques Rivette, Alain Resnais.Тhe
author examines existential transformation and interpretation of ideas in the
film works most prominent representatives of the French author's cinema,
starting from his own observations, as well as the active use of historical and
theoretical basis of domestic and foreign researchers. Аuthor draws on work of
A. Bazen, Zh. Sadul, Ye. Teplits, F. Tryuffo, J.-P. Zhankola, S. Freylih,
M. Mamardashvili, O. Musiienko, H. Chmil, M. Yampolskyi K. Razlohov, V.
Utilova and others.
attention is paid to the phenomenon of autobiographism in the work of members
of the «new wave». Since it autobiographism that primarily manifested in
associative unity episodes from the life of an artist biographies of fictional
characters, a relative confidence of the author and his characters.
Аutobiographism is one of the characteristics of the French author cinema.
analyzing the films of the French New Wave researcher has a special interest in
the problems of interpretation filmmakers meaning of life and attitude to
death. The researcher defines social nature works directors, authors, together
with the heroes of films are actively seeking the origins of violence and
tyranny in the irrational world.
article the place of the term «absurd» in the French film author, a leading
concept in the model of existentialism, which is associated with the name
Albert Camus. The author analyzes and compares some models absurd in movies F.
Tryuffo, L. Mal, K. Shabrol and other and draws conclusions about the
possibility of borrowing or interpretation by the author of the new millennium
analyzing the content and form of copyright movies, as well as figurative and
expressive means of the researcher relies on the basic principles of
philosophical vision and reality show artist, develops a conceptual approach,
according to which the French cinematic model of authorship is regarded not
only as one of the most important characteristics of human activity, but as a
true. Moreover, considering the means of expression in movies representatives
of the «new wave» of researchers is quite clear system of evidence and
arguments. This approach allows him to reveal the essence of the art searches
in the area of author cinema language.
article defined the place and role of the French model of intellectual
copyright in the history of cinema.
directing of extreme documentary film
Due to the current specifics of the world image, the
most essential issue now is the question of work in the armed conflict zones of
documentarians and television news reporters. It is becoming more and more
difficult to get some materials in these points without hazard to life, but
every television viewer is needed for some fresh information play by play.
Under these extreme conditions the most acceptable forms are some capacious
TV coverage or odd bits of information, quickly fixed
to a mobile phone or a camera. However, these materials do not have the artistic criteria and, therefore,
are not the subjects to special artistic studies. At the same time, the problem of the modern media functioning,
especially the analysis of the work
specifics of the documentaries, the
laws of creative and
organizational components are becoming
‘Films, belonging to any genre, are a way of
social self-expression, a mirror, showing and accommodating
the problems of any society and all its
values’. This is an idea of an English
film critic Warren Bucklad, can be the basis for determining the criteria,
underlying in the typology of extreme genre films.
Due to the fact, that the term
itself, and moreover, the range of
films, that can be attributed to
this kind of audiovisual performances, are still not clearly defined, and, even more, not
determined, there is a need to
consider the basic parameters of their typology.
The components of this definition include multiple content and methodological
constants: on the one hand, the subject-themed related orientation of the reflection objects,
on the other hand – the uniqueness of
artistic and aesthetic principles,
i. e. the specificity of the used
From the standpoint of the subject and the content
to the extreme documentary
films, from our point of view, there are the following films:
1) films, made in wars,
revolutions and armed conflicts;
2) films about disasters (fires,
3) films, produced under censorship of totalitarian regimes;
4) films about challenging geographic
locations: underwater shooting at a great depth, on the south and north pole (‘Nanook
of the North’ by R. Flaherty).
From the standpoint of peculiarities of the used artistic and aesthetic principles, the specificity of expressive
means, this type of screen documentary can be classified in the following
1) films with a director’s radical
interpretation and with a style in the development of an acute theme (M. Moore ‘Saiko’);
2) films with an amazing and a very strange plot (J.
Ivens ‘A tale of the wind’);
3) films about perverted sex and brutal violence;
4) experimental films of surrealism,
Sufi, Dada and
other focus areas.
These documentaries are
peculiar evidences or the truth of life
discoveries (and not mounted illusions), they correspond to a specific aesthetic principle introduced Siegfried Krakauer at appropriate time, who believed that the documentary ‘is not a fiction, but a
Analysis of these films allows
ascertaining the presence of a
number of characteristic components, conjugated with the risk in the work of a director:
1) the choice of the theme is based on a familiar story,
in which there are close friends or people;
2) the selection of the safest places
3) a director’s non-interference in
the course of events, shooting is
manifested mainly through the emotional
content of the frame;
4) a significant portion of filming
in the interior, at night, and shootings are fast, short, creating a feeling of unintentional camera. It is marked by a widespread use of traveling (traveling shot);
5) the minimum staff of the filmmakers;
6) cheap production, the minimum length of the
7) the absence of a script;
8) very hard, extreme working conditions.
and commercial animation
article is dedicated to separate aspects of commercial and handwork animation
Author animation is mostly
short, no more than 10-15 minutes movie. Short
footage, primarily driven by the budget deficit (in most cases producing of author animated
films is due to the authors
or by means of
various grants, which is rather limited). The production of full-length animated films take more money and time.
Naturally, the author work
of art can be not only animated,
but the usual feature film with actors and other works
of arts. However, one person, one author is
unable to make the feature film
without the help of operator,
assistants, actors and many other members
of the crew. The director-animator
may make his film almost alone, because it is the set – his
desktop (now mainly
a tablet computer).
Let us consider, the antipode of author animation –
commercial animation. It is sometimes
also called a genre, industrial and more. However, the
key is still the word «commercial». Of course, the main purpose of commercial cinema is to attract as many viewers
to view, in order to gain the greatest possible benefit. Admittedly, the best examples of commercial animation succeeds. Of course, all pioneers of animation craftsmen were
lone because in
those days, of course, there was no production or
studios. This Emile
Kohl, Stewart Blekton, Vladislav Starevych – puppet
animation pioneer. A bit later worked remarkable Canadian animator, a great experimenter and inventor Norman McLaren. He
invented the so-called tubeless
animation that does not require imaging techniques or
cameras. He just drew
on the film, meaning that 1 second projector is
24 frames of film.
In addition, McLaren invented a method of
shooting, called pixelation, the
word «pixel» which in Latin means «point».
To mention another outstanding craftsman lone
Oleksandr Aleksieiev, who lived and worked in France, where his family emigrated when
he was a child. His method of producing animated films was quite unique: the
films he shot through the so-called «needle» screen. This screen was a
box with many (hundreds
of thousands) needles. Actually, it was not the needle but
the metal rods that can be moved in the vertical plane. Thanks sidelight
from these cores
reflected shadows, which also created a picture.
Age of conveyor Animation
was launched by Walt
Disney in the 1930. Disney
developed a conveyor, as at Ford factories, production
system, which included the differentiation
of the production process, in
which each artist had his
In terms of the conveyor system
and planned economy it stays away
one of the best film directors of contemporary animation Yuri Norstein.
His films – a striking example of the author cinema,
which is a true work of high art.
So we can say that both commercial genre animation designed for a large audience
and author or, as they are now called «underground» films have a right to exist and
are needed for viewer. Under one
condition: commercial cinema must
be highly professional, high-style, and author movies must make some discoveries,
pave the way for the future of animation, be small laboratory
Holodomor tragedy in modern Ukrainian cinema
The interest to the theme of Big Hunger of 1932–1933
(«Holodomor»), which arose up yet at the end of 1980s and with renewed strength
regenerated in the middle of 2000s, not passed by attention of cinematography.
If in period of «Perebudova» (Restructurring) this theme gave, so to say, a
complete carte blanche for producers, as artistic subjects, scientific secret
services, publicism and archived sources, failing by then, presently speech
goes already not about discovery of this theme by facilities of the cinema, but
rather are new interpretations and search in it of new aspects. At what,
motivation for every producer, artist or documentarian, it. For someone it is
artistic embodiment of civil position or dynamic process of search of
historical true, and for someone it is a clean artistic reflection of epic
tragedy of people-victim of the regime. For producers-documentarians,
certainly, it yet and case (and duty!) to photograph the certificate of the
last – though as annoyingly to establish it - eyewitnesses of Hunger-33.Thus,
for past 20–25 years on a screen, – unfortunately, not wide, but rather
festival – to twenty documentary ribbons went out about the events of
1932–1933. Different – after the artistic value, form, method of opening of
theme, author position, poetics, by a having a special purpose audience and
others like that. (Something separately stands the first and until now unique
feature film about «Golodomor» «The Hunger-33» by Oles Yanchuk.) And in this
sense outstanding space is here opened for the researchers of the cinema – for
determination of genre modifications, search of semantic and philosophical
accents, selection of fresh dramaturgy and operator receptions, comparing to
the «trends» of the world documentary cinema, in the end, analysis of scenario
and raising errors which diminish artistic force of that or other film. At what
such research must be not simple reflection represented, but by certain
practical instruction for young producers which will embark on the theme of
Hunger-33, – how to strengthen artistic expressiveness of films of such special
subject, avoid producer and operator stamps, use all possibilities of the
modern cinema, that as possible more effective and more accessible to carry
factual material.The purpose of this article is to find out, as interprets the
cinematographic art of event of 1932–1933. It must be said, that complex
scientific labours which would engulf the different aspects (ideological,
semantic, structural) of this object of research failing for today.
So, Ukrainian cinema in the artistic form responded to
the process of rethinking of totalitarian past, in particular, the period
of 1932–1933. In this article we try deduce, how new historical facts are
interpreted on the documentary screen. New fact as basis of any record film and
sensible historical subject, to a great extent, determine a genre and poetics
of documentary films. The first documentary films about Hunger-33 and
repressions carry on a screen new facts about reasons, scales and consequences
of these national tragedies of Ukrainian. Such «concentrated» informing
determined genre nature, structure of the films. Modern Ukrainian
cinematography adopt the receptions of western documentary art, as:
minimization of author, phototypograph «contrasting game of precounts», use of
the so-called «reconstruction of events», and others like that.
and research activity
of G. O. Avenarius in
Odesa and Kyiv
investigates Odesa and Kyiv periods of cinemapedagogical and scientific
activity of Heorhii Oleksandrovych Avenarius, teacher in the Odessa State
Collage of Cinematography VUFKU, Kyiv State Institute of Cinematography, Actor
School at the Kyiv Film Studios, O. Dovzhenko’s Film director’s Laboratory.
finishing of the Odessa Actor Studio SFSPC (Society of Friends of Soviet Photo
and Cinema) in 1926 year, and technical (operator) department of Odessa State
College of Cinematography (OSCC) of All Ukrainian photo-, cinema management
(Ukrainian – VUFKU) in 1929, Heorhij Avenarius set to cinema pedagogical work
in Odessa State College of Cinematography (OSCC) of All Ukrainian photo-,
cinema management and on the courses of screen players of the Odessa Film
Studio. In future studies in Moscow, Leningrad and Odessa State Colleges of
Cinematography was to 1931 year equated with an institute.
organization in 1930 year of the Kyiv State Institute of Cinematography (KSIC)
on the base of Odessa State College of Cinematography (OSCC) of All Ukrainian
photo-, cinema management (Ukrainian –VUFKU) and cinema faculty of the Kyiv
Artistic Institute (KAI), Avenarius was translated in Kyiv State Institute of
Cinematography. First two school years in the Kyiv State Institute of
Cinematography he was the assistant of Prof. Ball on the Department of Cinema
Technical and Laboratory of talkies, where read general cinema technical,
sensitometers and color; from 1931 to 1934, until its closing, was the dean of
artistic and operator faculties of the Kyiv State Institute of Cinematography.
Oleksandrovych Avenarius from 1932 to 1936 on position of Associate professor
on four faculties of Kyiv State Institute of Cinematography read lectures on
the courses of «Scenario business» and «History of foreign cinematographic art»
developed by him and «Histories of soviet cinematographic art».
year in the magazine «Proletarskoe kino» was appeared the article of H.O.
Avenarius «To methodology of cinema genres». In the leading Ukrainian magazine
the «Cinema» in 1932 and 1933 Heorhii Oleksandrovych Avenarius presented the
interesting articles in Ukrainian language «Assembling theories of Eisenstein»
and «Expressionism in the Soviet cinema».
framework of reform of soviet cinema formation of 1934 on Kyiv Film Studios
Actor school of movie actors, which to 1935 year managed ex-teacher of Kyiv
State Institute of Cinematography V. Yunakivskyi and dean of artistic faculty
of H. Avenarius. They conducted examinations, or the so-called colloquiums,
among the former students of cinema actor course of Kyiv State Institute of
Cinematography, which made off the second course, and, as an exception, most
Specific features of
documentary cinema development in Ukraine in context of genre specificity of
The article is
dedicated to the world context of peculiarities of Ukrainian documentary in
specific genre character of arts. Through the evolution of cinematography the
main genres of the film development are determined. On the basis of scientific
literature, there are theoretical principles of genre specific of Ukrainian
documentary. There is an accent on the world importance of Ukrainian
documentary films. The scientific experience is generalized for the further
researches of national post-Soviet documentary films.
Problem of genre of documentary films is one of the most important and least
studied problems of modern art. On the one hand, documentary of Ukraine in the
context of world cinema is the phenomenon on that the contribution of Ukrainian
documentary, their professional skills to the world of
cinema, it is clear, as evidenced by films D. Vertov,
Dovzhenko. On the other-for quite a long
time, it was completely subordinated preference royal Russia and the Soviet
Union, in particular ideological propaganda. Thus, the
importance of the subject is due to the current level of art-science. Ukrainian art, since the second half of the 80s of the twentieth century,
is still in the conceptual reappraisal that was inherent in the
national cinema. This reassessment covers different periods and matched with
the deepening of the specificity of the analytical quality and multi-faceted
art movement in Ukraine. Research and subject to the
following aspects, which are still in force political
and ideological circumstances could not be considered scientists. This
will lead to a significant expansion of the range of issues that they are
actively developing a modern national scientific thought.
Epistolary of S. Freud and A. Einstein: pacifism aspect
which is self-sufficient culture problem, attracted the attention of
representatives of various branches of human knowledge, actualizing use of a
multidisciplinary approach. Actively «working» in self-sufficient conceptual
field of literary criticism, art history, philosophy, ethics, aesthetics,
culture and others, it stimulates the «cross» research, opening the opportunity
to discover new aspects in problem space of classical and modern humanities.
Among the personalities whose epistolary heritage has always been at the
epicenter of scientific studies, a special place occupies the figure of S.
The founder of
psychoanalytic theory, whose field of interest has been associated with variety
areas of natural and the humanities knowledge, left a huge array of epistolary,
thinking and rethinking of which still has its actuality. The subject of this
article is a letter of the Austrian scientist that has this status very
formally. This is answer of great psychiatrist S. Freud (1856–1939) to the
great physicist A. Einstein (1879–1955), which became self-sufficient essay and
was called «Is war inevitable?».
In 1931 the
leading intellectuals initiated the discussion of current and painful issues
facing contemporary Europe and led to the appearance of the book «Open
Letters». One of the participants of this project was Einstein, who was
responsible for the «pacifist» block and accustomed to discussing relevant
issues most reputable representatives of European culture, in particular – S.
Freud, asking him two questions: «Are there ways to prevent war security?» and
«Are there psychological tools that have worked to prevent hatred and aggression?».
Considerations of Vienna
researcher regarding the inevitability of war and finding appropriate
precautions that he shares with Einstein are self-reflection of the classical
principles of psychoanalysis, which Freud states at a theoretical level, but
also trying to transpose in practice. Despite the relatively small amount of
this letter-essay, it is conceptually rich, although the free form of
presentation, which involves the epistolary genre, leads to diversity of the
author’s thoughts. This article provides systematization of relevant thoughts
of Freud and structures them in four conventional areas: psychological /
psychoanalytic, cultural, ethical and aesthetic.
Mishka-Yaponchyk, Popandopulo: tricksters of «Odesa myth» in
performances of Vodianyi music comedy theatre
theme of the article is the correlation of the «Odesa myth» with a carnival
culture and category «trickster». The author proposes a cultural
anthropological analysis of M. Vodyanoy’s popular characters’ images
(Yashka the Tug (Yasha-Buksir), Mіshka the Japanese-Man (Mіshka Japonchik),
Popandopulo) based on the carnival concept of
M. Bahtin and on the category «trickster».
Тhe carnival is built on the principle of ambivalence. Carnival laughter is
directly linked with the informal culture. Carnival’s creative social role is
that it is a kind of valve that emits both negative and destructive power of
social protest. So, in this context trickster plays an important role.
opinion, the main hero of the «Odesa myth» is a typical
trickster, being one of the incarnations of carnival culture. Odesa trickster
of the Soviet period destroys socially accepted norms, moral principles. But
the trickster figure itself caused the largest sympathy of the Soviet
recipient. This sympathy is related to its specific function in Soviet culture.
Тhe trickster is created by means of using the revelries
the so-called «Era of Stagnation» Odesa Theater of Musical Comedy was
represented as one of the main storages and translators of the «Odesa
myth». In 1960s and 1970s the most symbolic performances in the repertoire were
«The White Acacia» («Belaya acacia») (1962), «By Dawn’s Early Light» («Na
rassvete») (1964), «Wedding in Malinovka» («Svadba v Malinovke») (1974) and «The Second Wedding in Malinovka» («Vtoraj Svadba v Malinovke»)
(1974). The heroes of those plays were charming scoundrels:
(Yashka the Tug (Yasha-Buksir), Mіshka the Japanese-Man (Mіshka Japonchik),
Popandopulo. They gained unprecedented fame because they were examples of
ambivalence. They are typical tricksters. Their mission lies in destruction
of ideological taboos, turning meanings. In addition, these images are
endowed with a carnival character. They are characterized also by versatility
and nationwidth. They were so popular in the Soviet Union, besides the fact
that these characters balanced between different discourses, ridiculed sacred
(power, official morality, norms) and violated the prohibition of all sorts,
they did the act of creation through the «explosion». It`s not surprising that
they were included into the pantheon of heroes of «Odesa myth».
Polymorphism of balls
Since mid-1990 scoring subjects started to
attract more and more attention in drama, historical culture experts and
journalists of the science-popular trend. However, there is a lack of
comprehensive scientific studies on the topic of balls in the
national Arts and Culture Studies.
word «ball» should be understood as a solemn public event, the main component of
the program is to dance. The variety of types of social practice in the area of
scoring was the cause of the different form of balls. The purpose of this study
- characterize this versatile phenomenon of festive balls as public art
component of cultural and leisure activities. Realization of this goal involves
the formulation and implementation of the following tasks: research the variety
of balls, differentiation, classification and systematization of the
the analytical performance comparison ballroom events the author proposes to
classify them in the following forms:
1. Balls regulated as dancing, the list which mostly
included polonaise, quadrille, waltz, mazurka, polka, kotylyon and tango, rock
2. Balls concerts, which are combined with dance
performances, performance of literary works and songs participants, sale of
3. Balls for graduation, which is a mandatory part of the
ceremonial awarding of certificates of education, teachers’ speeches and entertainment – performances
and dance performances.
4. Theatricalized balls, along with a mandatory component
of the dance show participants «living pictures».
5. A special type of ball is a masquerade ball – an event where participants dress up in masks and special suits,
sometimes creating a certain stage image.
6. Masked balls, which was an atmosphere of madness
passion, theatricality, with motifs of travestie, fancy tunes romantic
feelings, called «Folio». The
traditional character it was female mask «madness» or «Folly»
7.ÂÂÂÂÂÂ Specific form ball was masquerade of theatrical raffle
where scenario is part of the joke in order to mislead viewers.
8. A characteristic form of theatrical ball was knightly
carousel – equestrian tournaments riders and rider who split in
9. Since the nineteenth century elements of secular
culture rather harmoniously intertwined with the ancient religious traditions.
The embodiment of such a combination is found in the Christmas celebrations. In
the afternoon, participants rode a sleigh staged theatrical humorous greetings
and evening singing drinking songs, played and danced balls.
study, points are classified and their relative locations of - in private
homes, palaces, mounted on the horse terrains, in public meetings (clubs), theaters,
concert halls, cabarets, parks, yards, architectural monuments, streets,
mythologem of androgyne in Marc Chagall’s theatre and scenographic activity
artіcle analyzes the mythologem of androgyne in Marc Chagall’s creative search
(in dramatic art). There is also a short description of artistic feature of
mythologem of androgyne is one of the basic cultural metaphors in European
culture and is presented in a variety of discourses. Today, androgyny is the
subject of research in philosophy, psychology, sociology, gender studies,
culturology etc. At the same time the range of problems of representation of
the androgyne image in the art (including the theater) is not studied enough.
The theme of the androgyne is one of the key in Marc Chagal’s works.
is the successor of the spiritual tradition of Hasidism. Basic worldviews of
Hasidism had an influence on his art. Chagall sees his creative work as a high
mission. He is trying to give a work of art religious and cosmic character.
Chagall can be called a cosmopolitan master: he embodies national culture and
mythology in his works, but he also creates his own myths. And in such myths
the spiritual experience of all mankind is contained.
Chagall’s art a spirit of the play has an important role. Remarkably a circus
is one of his favorite images. Circus is a unique model of the world, which
contains all the «magic of life». Chagall’s works are characterized by histrionics, and
the master himself gravitates to the synthesis of art, music and literature.
Along with the spirit of the play, the desire for artistic missionary, this
leads him to the theater. Chagall tries to breathe new life into the Jewish
theater, change its aesthetics, get rid of lifelikeness, excessive
psychological naturalism. The Master works in tandem with the creative and N.
Evreynovand A. Granovskiy. He creates thumbnails for the plays
«Absolutely happy song», «Comrade Khlestakov» as well as plays by Sholom
Aleichem. Chagall’s theater has a national and cosmopolitan character at one
and the same time. It has lot of non-national symbols. The mythologhem of the
androgyne is one of such symbols.
cultures Androgyne (from greek andros – «man» and gynai – «woman») is a
mythical creature that symbolizes the harmony of the world, the «first man»,
the unity of opposites. Since Plato’s myth it’s associated with the
metaphor of the perfect man and the idea of love as a thirst of reunion. Ancient
legend inspired many artists, including Marc Chagall. His representation of the
androgyny originates from mythology and religion. He always associated the
theme of love with his beloved wife Bella Rosenfeld. The sacred union between a
man and a woman is like something that lies at the heart of being. Chagall’s
lovers in their merger represent the «primordial androgyne» symbolically. Love
conquers dualism and division of the world, redeems the Fall (before which Adam
and Eve are united and the same). The theme of love and androgyny can be found
in paintings by Chagall and his theater works.
notable theater work on this subject – decorative design of Ravel’s ballet
«Daphnis and Chloe» Also we can note the ballets «Aleko», «Firebird» image panel «Love on stage». It’s quite lot of Blue color that symbolizes a
firstborn womb, in which of love is born. The most remarkable Master’s work,
which is also presents the myth of androgyne, is painting the ceiling of the
Paris Grand Opera. Chagall called his work an attempt to express the respect
for opera and ballet composers. Chagall turns to his favorite motifs and
symbols, including images of lovers. Heroes of «Daphnis and Chloe», «Firebird»,
«Romeo and Juliet», «Tristan and Isolde» all represent the «primordial
androgyne». Chagall’s mythologem of androgyny retains its original meaning and
is valuable exactly because of its symbolism. Master’s works are just one
example of the representation of androgyny in the performing arts, and there is
still a large field for research.
Conditions of genesis of Ukrainian national cinema and activities of VUFKU
First World War and the civil war economic, political and cultural situation
was very difficult in Ukraine.
Bolshevik government created the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which on
30 December 1922 became one of the founding republics of the Soviet Union. The
Soviet policy on Ukrainian language and Ukrainian culture changed two times; in
the 1920s Ukrainian was established as the language of administration and
schools. In the 1930s it turned to russification.
proclamation of Ukrainization in 1923 may be understood as a consequence of the
New Economic Policy, as a result of which private small scale production was
tolerated. NEP was the ground from which the Ukrainian cultural revival of the
Bolshevik power was interested of development cinema direction in
Ukraine from 1917 year. But this interest had practical ideological character.
It was two main line in this work: chronicle films and propaganda films. But
situation changed with NEP and Ukrainization.
situation founded VUFKU. VUFKU
was established on March 13, 1922 under the National Commissar of Education of
the Ukrainian SSR. In November 1922, shortly after the creation of VUFKU,
Ukrainian authorities established the state's monopoly over production,
distribution, and exhibition of films in Ukraine, elevating VUFKU's importance.
The company became the sole proprietor and owner of the film industry in
Ukraine, as well as the only distributor of foreign films in the territory of
the Ukrainian republic.
line VUFKU’s work is: building factories and studios for all process cinema
industry, cinema popularization in the villages (where most of the population
lived), international relations (in work cinema clubs, information,
exhibitions), reorganization sphere of cinema education, cinema science,
development creative component of cinema and etc.
run main as an industrial enterprise. Its management put much emphasis on the
efficiency of the production process: budgets were tightly controlled and new
methods were introduced to reduce the production time and cost of each film.
VUFKU controlled production, distribution, and exhibition of films. The company
enjoyed exclusive rights for distribution of films on Ukrainian territory, and
did not allow Russian distributors to enter the market. During the 1920s, any
company, including all Soviet ones, had to enter into an agreement with VUFKU
in order to be able to show their films in Ukraine.
change quickly affected VUFKU and films the company released at the time. The
independent Ukrainian film industry began to lose its autonomy and was
eventually abolished altogether.
the existence and activities VUFKU was very important fact for development Ukrainian national cinema in the 1920s. Ukrainian
national cinema was well known in the world in that time.
VUFKU Heads. Pages of the Ukrainian Cinema History
Ukrainian cinema of
1920s was widely known abroad. The films, produced by the Ukrainian Film
Company VUFKU (Vse-Ukrains'ke Foto Kino Upravlinnia, or All-Ukrainian
Photo Cinema Administration) were successfully shown not just in the
USSR. Ukrainian cinema director Yevhen Deslav, who worked in France,
reported about a special attention to the films Taras Tryasylo and Zvenygora.
There were plenty of
talanted directors, cameramen, actors, artists and producers, who worked in the
Ukrainian cinematography of those times.
An important figure
among them is Pavlo Nechesa, who headed first Odesa, and then Kyiv ‘cinema
factories’. It was him, who allowed Olexandr Dovzhenko to start filming,
and supported director in difficult times.
Nechesa co-worked with
Zakhar Khelmno from the VUFKU leadership, a personality as charismatic,
as Nechesa has been. Khelmno has been amongst the first people to
initiate the cinema education in Ukraine. Odesa cinema technical school
started preparing artistic and technical human ressources for the Ukrainian
cinematography. He had also made various contacts with the Ukrainian
unions of writers, who were producing scenarios for films.
Khelmno has ensured
opening of screenwriters’ and directors’ unit at Odesa studio. He invited there
such famous Ukrainian authors as Yuri Yankovskyy, Mykola Bazhan and Mykhayl
Semenko. He had also invited famous theater directors – Les Kurbas and
Starting from 1928, VUFKU’s leadership has been strongly opposing from
subordinating to the United All-Union Centre. The Moscow bosses planned
to create a single Soviet cinema syndicate, which would, first of all, be
responsible for the distribution of Soviet films to the Western firms.
Zinoviy Siderskyy has been amongst those VUFKU leaders, who opposed at
their strongest, creation of such a syndicate. He published his arguments
in the magazine Kino of 1928.
Siderksyy argued that there was no need in this syndicate. He underlined that
the republican cinema organizations are not just firms, but important cultural
institutions. He was insisting on the necessity of developing the
national component at the republican studios.
In the same way as Pavlo Nechesa has initated Olexandr Dovzhenko’s carreer in
the cinema, Siderskyy has helped a sculptor Ivan Kavaleridze to make his way to
the industry. A meeting between Siderksyy and Kavaleridze in Kyiv has
played a crucial role in sculptor’s choice of the future.
The renowned sculptor has been accepted very friendly at the Odesa studio. He
has had all the support needed, when he filmed his avant-garde Zlyva,
and this was largely due to Siderskyy.
Destinies of all those producers ended in a very tragic way. Almost all of
those, who headed VUFKU in 1920–1930, or were directors of the Ukrainian
‘cinema fabrics’ were shot. All of them shared many things in common.
They passed through the Civil War and were far from being artists, they were
also far away from the cinema. However, they made a maximum of effort in order
to overcome their dilettantism and develop Ukrainian cinema.
Thematic planning in
of VUFKU period
The article analyzes the characteristics of the thematic planning in Ukrainian
cinema in the
1920s. The thematic plan of 1928–1929 year is taken as a basis.
At present, the issue of
thematic planning is quite debatable. Some consider it as a relic of the Soviet
era. However, the state film industry will always exist along with the private
film production. Therefore, the stated topic is relevant
Thematic planning was an
integral part of the Soviet cinema. This applies to the Ukrainian
cinematography as well.
The first attempts to
establish a planned release of films were made in 1919 by the
All-Ukrainian film committee. However, these attempts were
obstructed by the lack of the material, technical and financial resources, as well
as by civil war.
In 1922, the
All-Ukrainian Photo and Cinema Administration (VUFKU) was created. The process of
thematic planning of films was started.
At first, thematic plans
did not have a clearly defined character. They were often adjusted.
At the end of 1920 the winding down of
the new economic policy and strengthening of the administrative-command
system of national economy's management took place. At this time, thematic
planning became increasingly important. It became an important
instrument of control of the Ukrainian cinematography.
In late 1928, VUFKU
developed a thematic plan of film production for 1928–1929 operating
year. This thematic plan was a subject to a broad discussion.
It was the first real
thematic planning of the Ukrainian cinema products. It was carried
out within the framework of the introduction of five-year development
plans of the USSR national economy.
A VUFKU draft thematic
plan for 1928–1929 year consisted of the five sections: «Social and everyday themes», «Themes that cover national
politics», «Themes in the history of social movements in Ukraine», «Themes on ancient past of
Ukraine», «Themes of children’s films».
This thematic plan
failed to be implemented.
Ukrainian avant-garde in magazine «Cinema»
magazine Kino was first published in 1925 by the Ukrainian Film Company VUFKU
(Vse-Ukrains’ke Foto Kino Upravlinnia, or All-Ukrainian Photo Cinema Administration).
However, that year, only one issue has appeared, and the full cycle edition
begins only next year, 1926. This magazine has been a mirror of the Ukrainian
cinema of 1920s – beginning of 1930s. This publication has been influencing the
artistic processes. Kino wrote not just about the Ukrainian cinema, but
about the international cinema too. A particular attention has been given to
the movement of French avant-garde.
were also interested in the modernist movements of other states, for instance
in the German expressionism.
important to note that VUFKU has been supporting important artistic
experiments. This has been reflected on Kino’s pages.
Meyerhold’s student, Nikolay Ohlopkov, directs in Odesa an excentric comedy Mitya
and screens a pamflet by Paul Lafargue, Sold Appetite, which is clearly
influenced by German Expressionism.
more artists were coming to work in Ukraine. A renowned documentary director
Dziga Vertov arrived to Ukraine, at VUFKU’s invitation, in 1927.
He will direct there films which will become true chef d’oeuvres of the
documentary cinema: Eleventh, Man with a Movie Camera, and a
first Ukrainian sound documentary Symphony of the Donbass (also known as
Ukrainian by their nature, films by Olexandr Dovzhenko and Ivan Kavaleridze,
became a real esthetic break-through in the Ukrainian cinema. When we
analyze films of these two authors, we can talk about the new screen visuality,
where the national aspects were being present from a vanguard perspective, and
where the language of cinema has been renewed.
all this concerns Dovzhenko’s films Zvenygora, Arsenal and Zemlya.
A writer and cinema critic Mykola Bazhan said that Dovzhenko’s cinema is
“musical panting” and “a graphics of time”. Bazhan supported Dovzhenko’s
idea to show a tragic and wavy character of an époque, rather than
provide a simple chronology of the events. Bazhan said that Dovzhenko’s
style can be called a Revolutionary expressionism.
Zemlya has been an echo of vitajizm, a movement of Ukrainian
Renaissance of the 1920s.
magazine Kino was protecting Dovzhenko’s movie against the unjust
criticism. It has been also following with an interest Kavaleridze’s work
on Zlyva. The artist has been aspiring to combine in this film esthetic
principles of cinema and sculpture.
beginning of 1930s the Communist party and the government are beginning to
excess a strict control over the artists. The artists are being denied any
right to experimnt. Ukrainian cinematographers are being accused of
nationalism. The magazine Kino is also under such a criticism. The
magazine ceases existing in May 1933.
One of the forgotten
Ukrainian film critics
This article deals
with the activity of Shamil Akhushkov, a well-known journalist and film critic,
the first Ingush scriptwriter, the editor and the leader of Ingush renaissance
and his contribution to the Ukrainian and Russian cinema studies of 20s–30s of the
motivation for writing the article appeared during the preparation
of bibliography content index of magazine «Cinema» within
the framework of the historical and bibliographical study «Materials
on the history of Ukrainian cinema», initiated by the National parliamentary
library of Ukraine in 2009.
(1907–1943, estimated years of his life), died on the fronts of World War II,
near Voronezh, where he was the front-line newspaper editor.
Ukrainian lifetime continued over ten years (1924–1935).
During this time he lived in Kharkiv and Odessa.
This period is marked
not only by the publications dedicated to the film magazine «Cinema» and
scripts («Gavroche», «Excellent Chinese woman (Soybean)» etc.) but
also by literary studies.
Two of his short
stories «Plum blossom» and «Woman» from the cycle «Inhushetiya» were
published in the magazine «Chervonyi shliakh». He
dedicated the story «Woman» was to H. Tychyna.
S. Akhushkov actively
participated in the scientific and cultural life.
In particular, he
became a member of the Ukrainian society of playwrights and composers (USPaC).
Also he was a member of Kharkiv Russian Drama Theater`s Arts Council, published
in Kharkiv scientific journals, such as «Soviet Art» and «Skhidnyi
of creativity of Sh. Akhushkov was really «stellar». He was a
participant of elite film studies companionship.
At the end of 30’s he
worked in Derzhkinovydav and was the consultant on the movie in drama section
Writers' Union of the USSR. Akhushkov continued to publish in the cinematic
periodicals, such as «Proletarskoe kino»,
collaborating with cinema trust «Vostokkino» (Moscow).
Then S. Akhushkov
worked in collaboration with Pera Attasheva. Their common work were «Battleship
“Potemkin”» (“Bronenosets Potyomkin”) and the album of photos «Sovetskoe
Shamil Akhushkov had
fundamental knowledge of the history of world culture. His erudition, knowing
of European languages helped him to participate
in the preparation of issues «Materials
on the history of world cinema», edited by S. Eisenstein and S. Yutkevich.
Only two volumes were published, which have been devoted to the creativity of
famous figures of American cinema, in particular David Griffith and Charles Chaplin. This publication
has two important components – basic filmography and wide illustrative
materials. It has become classics of cinematic lierature, and later – antique
rarities. The following information about this publication one can find soon in
antiquarian sites than in the library electronic resources.
The existence of such
topics shows that the information resource of the magazine «Cinema», which
was published in 1925–1933 is not yet exhausted.
The work by A. Dovzhenko: The
beginning of Ukrainian poetic cinema
Ukrainian cinema 60s years of the last century is characterized by a special
creative freedom. Poetic cinema is a unique phenomenon which was formed in this
period of time.
speaking of poetic cinema in Ukraine we should look back to its origins such as
work of an outstanding writer and filmmaker Alexander Dovzhenko, who had begun
his career at the studio VUFKU. The film «Zvenigora» is
generously filled with cinematic metaphors and symbols. The plot was not
actually in the film, it was built from individual poetically colored fragments
that cover more than a thousand year of Ukrainian history. The audience can see
the pictures of the riding Vikings, centuries-old struggle of Ukrainians
against Polish gentry, the events of the World War I and the October
«Zvenigora» is really
astounding by its philosophical depth and richness of social action. The plot
of the film shows nothing about character development , and the movement of
passionate author's thoughts, complex associative links that make more
expressive the artistic idea. In this filmstrip A. Dovzhenko has already showed
himself as an original artist, closely associated with the element of national
life. Comparing individual frames in a single mounting image, Dovzhenko reveals
their poetic overtone which reaches with his extraordinary artistic force
generalizations. It would be fairly to recall the beveled stacks of bread,
which are transformed into a pyramid guns, filling the entire screen space.
picture by A. Dovzhenko, which was started on VUFKU but completed only at the
Kiev studio which was renamed «Earth» (in 1930). The director showed a pattern of
birth and death (the fruits of the earth and the person actually). In this
filmstrip A. Dovzhenko became the spokesman of worldview and spirit of the
Ukrainian nation, which shows predetermined manner calm dignity of her life -
namely, the indissoluble bond with the land. The outward simplicity of the «Earth» is
deceptive – it covers a wide range of artistic media – here the
symbol is a part of real events' flow. The grandfather's death at the beginning
of the film is replaced on view of ripe apples that symbolize not only the
fruits of the earth, but also a completion of the cycle of life.
conflict of the film - the clash of conductors collectivization with private
landowners. The main idea of the picture is a thought that the mother-earth
gives us birth, feeds us and takes us after death, and still belongs to each of
us equally. Land in Dovzhenko’s philosophy – is a
symbol of a justice and moral laws of society. It chooses whom to admit to
itself or whom push away. And there is a symbolic scene of Foma’s despair.
After killing Vasil, he is trying to burrow himself into the ground to find
salvation in it, but it doesn’t accept him.
of A. Dovzhenko’s works and his attitude to beauty, the ability to
look at things from the perspective of eternity, the proximity to the creative
soul and mental traits of Ukrainians, and his wide-minded thinking at the same
time are the elements of creativity Alexander Dovzhenko, who made a significant
influence not only on the Ukrainian cinema, but on the whole world as well.
motifs and archetypes of world culture in films of Heorhii Stabovyi,
Heorhii Tasin and Oleksandr Dovzhenko
examines in the article the mythological motifs and archetypes of world culture
that emerged in the art of Ukrainian film directors, who started their career
in VUFKU. Heorhii Stabovyi, Heorhii Tasin and Oleksandr Dovzhenko. The author
analyzes such films as «Night driver», «Two Days», «Zvenyhora», «Arsenal» and
culture is an integral part of world culture. Therefore, the Ukrainian cultural
layer includes universal mythological themes. Archetypes of world culture are
language of mythology, which manifested in the works of various Ukrainian film
directors, particularly those who started their careers in the walls of VUFKU
in the film are meaningful and constructive unit. Archetype is calculated and
evaluated instructive of dramatic film.
patterns and relationships between transpersonal beginnings are formed from the
myths and traced throughout the history of art. Vision in mythological
characters and plots typological features, allows to select the archetypal
characters and archetypal themes. Archetypal character in the film transform
into a modern version of the archetype. It can be argued that any mythological,
literary and cinematic hero is the archetypical character. Archetypal plot
respectively – typical sequence of implementation courses hero in certain
movies, made by masters of VUFKU, characteristic the manifestations of the
world archetypal images. Archetypes correspond archetypal characters and
archetypal stories which, in turn, set the genre definition, trying to generate
a particular emotion. However, the archetypes of world culture, embodied in the
works of Ukrainian artists, brightly colored in Ukrainian national traditions.
Tradition generally have exceptional importance for Ukrainian and occupy an
important place that is evident in the work by Stabovyi and Tasin, and reached
its apogee in the works of Oleksandr Dovzhenko.
days» and «Low cab» we face with such archetypes as Shadow, Hero, Renaissance,
Trickster, Self, embodied by prominent actors I.Zamychkovskyi and A.Buchma.
Hero confronts with Trickster, that anti-heroes, it helps by the Spirit, and
the Hero is reborn in the Self. However, Hero plays a major role in the plot.
Trickster and Spirit act as secondary characters. Revival Hero describes
triumph over the circumstances in which it is placed.
triptych of Dovzhenko – «Zvenyhora», «Arsenal», «Zemlia» we first have such
archetypes, as the wise Old Man, Hero, Mother, which is associated with the
earth. Dovzhenko fills these archetypes with features of Ukrainian nature.
importance of Tasin, Stabovyi and Dovzhenko creativity can not be overstated,
they created on screen live human characters, full of deep archetypal nature
that have been emotionally and psychologically close to multimillion audience.
The spirit symbols of «Two Days», «Night driver, «Zvenyhora», «Arsenal» and
«Zemlia» significantly influenced the further development of Ukrainian cinema
and, above all, philosophical and esthetic concepts of its poetic direction.
ACADEMIC BULLETIN OF KYIV NATIONAL KARPENKO-KARYI UNIVERSITY OF THEARE, CINEMA AND TELEVISION
Hanna Veselovska Theatre-balletvisions of Taras Shevchenko as artistic model of his poetic art
Rostyslav Pylypchuk Drama «Nazar Stodolia»: from creation, first staging (1842-1844) and first edition (1862) to regular performances in Rutenian (Ukrainion) public theatre of «Rutenian (Ukrainska) Besida» Company (1864–1900) in Galicia
Petro Kravchuk, Lesia Ovchiieva Shevchenko’s images in artistic work of Marko Kropyvnytskyi
Victor Humeniuk Shevchenko’s motives in Volodymyr Vynnychenko’s dramatugy (on play «Memento»)
Mykhailo Zakharevych Franko’s shevchenkiana (stage directions on works of poet and image of T. Shevchenko in performances)
Bohdan Kozak «Haidamaky» by Taras Shevchenko on stage of Zankovetska nacional academic drama theatre (1922–1988)
Vasyl Andriitso Theatrical shevchenkiana of Transcarpathia
Yana Partola Interpretations of «Nazar Stodolia» of T. Shevchenko on stage of Kharkiv Shevchenko drama theatre
Yuliana Poliakova Shevchenkiana of Kharkiv Shevchenko drama theatre: vectors of artistic search
Roman Lavrentii The play «Taras Shevchenko» by Zenon Tarnavskyi on the stage of the Ukrainian youth theater «Zahrava» (1937, directed by V. Blavatskyi)
Valerii Haidabura Taras Shevchenko’s works on dramatic stage during nazi occupation of Ukraine (1941-1944)
Yeva Kovalenko Interpretation potential of choreographic shevchenkiana
Serhii Trymbach Complex of messiah: Oleksandr Dovzhenko / Taras Shevchenko
Andrii Doroshenko Between the myth and the truth: interpretation of the image of Taras Shevchenko in ukrainian documentary of soviet period (1918–1991 years)
Anastasiia Shulhina Taras Shevchenko’s theme in the works of first Ukrainian cameramen O. Kalyuzhnyi and M. Topchii in 1920s–30s
Oksana Volosheniuk Cinema biography of Taras Shevchenko: reconstruction of conjecture
Inha Chkhatarashvili-Petrash Cinema shevchenkiana of Vasyl Grygorovych Krychevskyi
Olena Dmytryk Touch Shevchenko: haptic aesthetics of films «Lileia» and «Naimychka»
Heorhii Cherkov Image of historical figure as fenomenon of national screen culture
Liudmyla Novikova Change of paradigm of cinema shevchenkianа
THEATRE-BALLET VISIONS OF TARAS SHEVCHENKO AS ARTISTIC MODEL OF HIS POETIC ART
A lasting and thorough study of the life and artistic career of Taras Shevchenko by scholars of art has not exhausted yet all under-researched and not fully clarified aspects of his activity. Among these in particular are issues related to the formation of Shevchenko’s creative personality, his entrance into the artistic community, acquiring of creative professional experience and working out of aesthetic priorities.
As is known, his passionate love for the theatre, which proved life-long, came to Taras Shevchenko after he had familiarised himself with the art of renowned Italian dancer Maria Taglioni. It was her tour in Petersburg that inspired the future poet and artist to start exploring in earnest the theatrical art. At the same time, in the opinion of the article author, the romantic ballet, with all its special inkling to air-lightness and atmosphere of flight, and so popular in the first half of the XIX century, impressed the young artist far more than just as an exquisite beautiful performance.
Thanks to the ballet romanticism, with its dominant infernality, Shevchenko fleshes out creative vision and a certain artistic model employed further on in his poetic career. Thus, of paramount importance to the future poet was the abundance in the ballet of that time of various fantastic scenes of flights and dreams depicted with the help of the specialÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂ la pointe technique and peculiar scenic mechanisms.
A flight in the dream, as a specifically changed state that allows one to see something usually unavailable in normal life, serves the primary plot-formative moment for his famous poem “The Dream”, which is referred to in the subtitle as a comedy. However, unlike most of romantics for whom dreams and flights are rather traditional as such, Shevchenko uses the notion of flight not so much as a means for a speedy movement but for changing an angle of vision on this or that phenomenon. A flight in the dream allows Shevchenko to use the so called reverse perspective, making what can be seen from above look as something kept at a distance, visualised in a big picture and with much expression. In the view of the author of the article, such a method could have emerged under the influence of a joint attendance of Maria Taglioni’s performance by Karl Brullov and Taras Shevchenko, the event that the latter described in his novel ‘The Artist’.
The time of Shevchenko becoming an artist is the time of the so called first Petersburg period when he directly gets to know the theatrical life of the capital, begins to participate in various artistic events and enters the high circles of art life. The article also explores intentions and influences which young Shevchenko was feeling at the time when he was mingling with the Petersburg art community and which had a definite impact on his poetic career.
Drama «Nazar Stodolia»: from creation, first staging (1842-1844) and first edition (1862) to regular performances in Rutenian (Ukrainion) public theatre of «Rutenian (Ukrainska) Besida» Company (1864–1900) in Galicia
The article conducts the scenic history of drama «Nazar Stodolia» and staging of other Shevchenko’s works in repertoire of first Ukrainian professional theatre in Galicia during Dual Monarchy (1864-1914). It is first brought the texts of reviews of those times from periodic press, unfortunately unknown yet not only for mass audience but for theatre historians too.
Petro Kravchuk, Lesia Ovchiieva
SHEVCHENKO’S IMAGES IN STAGE CREATIVITY OF MARKO KROPYVNYTSKYI
The article covers creative relations between the leading figure of Ukrainian theatre, Marko Kropyvnytskyi, and the literary legacy of Taras Shevchenko. It especially traces the influence of the great writer on the formation of the Ukrainian theater figure’s creative worldview, since "Kobzar" for the Kropyvnytsky family was a kind of “gospel". From the first steps of Kropyvnytsky’s acting at amateur clubs he played the role of Khoma Kychaty, the matchmaker, and other characters in the play "Nazar Stodolya" as well as recited Shevchenko’s poetry on stage.
Having become a professional actor in G. Ashkarenko’s troupe, M.Kropyvnytsky played Nazar. In 1882 M. Kropyvnytsky organized his own troupe in Yelisavetgrad and one of the first performances together with I. Kotlyarevsky’s “Natalka-Poltavka”, he staged "Nazar Stodolya", where a young actress Maria Zankovetska successfully debuted as Galya, Khoma Kychaty’s daughter. The roles of Khoma Kychaty and Nazar were played with a great success by M.Kropyvnytsky and M. Sadovsky respectively. The performance of this cast was enjoyed with continuous popularity in a wide range audience of Yelisavetgrad, Poltava, Odessa and other cities where they toured, and in 1886 it captivated the audience of Saint Petersburg. All the St. Petersburg newspapers gave their approving reviews. The acting of individual performers was praised and the play as a whole got a positive feedback expressed by the theater connoisseur Alexander Suvorin - the publisher of the "Novoe Vremya" publication. Besides the actors he also honoured production achievements of Kropyvnytsky’s talent.
The years passed by, Kropyvnytsky’s theater groups got changed, but "Nazar Stodolya" was constantly on the repertoire and for a lot of young actors the performance was a fundamental school of acting, starring P. Saksagansky, L. Linytska, E. Zarnytska, I. Maryanenko and many others, later prominent actors.
Shortly after, many Shevchenko’s poetical works made it onto the stage: “Haydamaky", "Kateryna", "The Hireling", but the most popular ones became Kropyvnytsky’s adaptations - "The Slave" (based on the poem "the Blind") and "Tytarivna" (based on the poem of the same title) better known on stage as "Mockery and Revenge".
Due to the staging and remaking of Shevchenko’s works there was a problem of relations between the literary works and their staged versions. It is no secret that there are many top literary works that lose their charm and peculiarities in the stage interpretation comparing to those inherent in the reading.
M. Kropyvnytsky was one of the first masters, who pointed out that the characters of Shevchenko's poetry were full of action. They have their own lives, their own histories and their own important tasks.
Kropyvnytsky’s versions of "The Slave" and "Tytarivna" stand the closest to original Shevchenko. In his adaptations the playwright sought to preserve the national speech, the character’s traits, and the flavor and ease of Shevchenko's poems. "The Slave" is a dramatic play of 5 acts. This is actually one of the earliest Kropyvnytsky’s pieces first staged in the company of G. Ashkarenko in February 1882. Since then, the show had become Kropyvnytsky’s favourite, for all the years of its life on stage it withstood 120 performances, meaning that the artist played the role of father, Vasyl Koval, 120 times and even celebrated several benefits in this role.
In the play M. Kropyvnytsky as a director was trying to line up events in their dramatic tension and emotional build-up in the background of rich history and true picture of the Zaporizhzhya Sich life. The director studied the historical materials in detail, and with the finest eye for things and parts that covered the reality, his creative nature transformed them into artistic metaphor.
Kropyvnytsky’s Koval monologues, according to eyewitnesses, were not only the main events of the play’s composite construction, but they expressed all the patriotic nature and parental love.
The role of the old Cossack Vasyl Koval remained unchanged performed by Kropyvnytsky and undoubtedly was among his favorites. The last time this role, the master played on April 4, 1910 in Odessa. The next performance was still scheduled for April 7, but the actor could not play it, so he went out to the audience to explain the cause of his weariness and ask for forgiveness. The great artist died of a brain hemorrhage on the way home on April 8.
Tracing Kropyvnytsky’s career, we can say that this prominent figure continued the same glorious struggle for the people’s happiness and the beauty of the human soul in the theater as T. Shevchenko did in the literature.
Shevchenko's motives in Volodymyr Vynnychenko's dramatugy (on play “Memento”)
The author of the article investigates one of early Vynnychenko’s play belonging to genre of intellectual drama.
The main character – painter Vasyl Kryvenko – kills his son, thinking and saying about him as “memento”, as the reminder of the crash of his cherished beliefs, breaking between the devotion to these beliefs and touching voice of the new for him paternal feelings. In the play’s context it’s title essentially reconsiderated, turning into “memento” for everyone who wants to put vivid truth into the Procrustean bed of the idea. The playwright stresses that any idea can’t be absolute and all-absorbing, that even the greatest idea can turn to it’s opposition, can be fruitful only on some conditions, such as when it doesn’t lose a touch with mysterious and reality which is wider than any idea. This idea becomes more scaring when it is possessed by such an unordinary person as Vasyl Kryvenko. The surname says itself in this case. He turned out to be too far from the expected sincerity.
Vinnychenko doesn’t lapse into some simplified or pathetically single-valued accuse of the character, stressing on his sufferings. Evidently, it has become one of the essential reasons for not accepting the play by it’s first critics: D. Doroshenko, who wrote that the idea of sincerity with itself the author shows here “in absolutely inappropriate way” and replases artistry by “quite boring journalism” , and S. Yefremov, who classified “Memento” as author’s “waste work” and etc.
The play belongs to the genre of intellectual drama, artistic comprehending of the interaction problem between idea and reality here is the main descriptive factor. But the external journalism of the work distinguishes by special thrift, artistic philosophy shows itself first and foremost from the life realia, from comprehending the characters’ fate. Certain non-standardness or maybe even artificiality swims out of the play’s poetics, of underlining the playing element of the dramatic actions, kind of using the maxims of the theatre in the theatre. Also recollected non-standardness and artificiality levels with the natural detectivness of wide opened lifelike pictures, subtle play of psychological implications and spectacular details.
The attention to used by the author folk-literary reminiscence helps to find out the artistic immeasurableness of the play much significantly. “Memento” is the first Vynnychenko’s dramatic work, in the artistic textile of which are quite widely entwined songs. Notable that the first song like that “When the Two Fall Apart” (popular from the end of XIX century duet of M. Lysenko set to Heine’s words), a work that was figuring in the story “Entrepreneur Harcoun-Zadunaysky”, properly in the play destructively mocked in this story, where similar sentimental songs were shown as doubtful rescue from the dramatists’ and producers’ sloppy work. It’s evident that Vynnychenko consciously used this duet, giving it as a means of artistic psychology, as inalienable link of the drama. Orysia and Pasha (Pasha resists at first – “They sing some sentimental rubbish”) perform this duet because of Antonina’s persistent pleading, who, lying on the bed ant listening to it gives the outlet to her bitter feelings, born by the precedent talk with Kryvenko. Not long after in the same view the performance of Shevchenko’s “As I die, bury me” is used with good effect, it ends with heroine’s emotional splash: “Antonina in the end of singing covers her face with her hands and loudly cries” (after that the author gets even more refinement in the usage of singing of “Testament” in the play “Lie”. In oe of the conversations with Kryvenko Antonina, horrified because of possibility of infanticide, firmly states: “And don’t just try to do it! Don’t you try ! I’ll send you to prison without any regret!”.ÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂ And as if the late answer to these words, while the fifth carouse in the III part Kryvenko starts to sing “The sun rises in Siberia…” Performed later by drunken society cossack’s song with typical chorus (“…What is going on in our home Ukraine and who’s children are we”) originally calls one another with the dramatic flow and includes it into the wider context. The lullaby (set to the words of Lesya Ukrainka from the series “Seven strings” ) performed by Pasha over the cradle creates a special mild-dreamy mood, which ruins Kryvenko’s coming.
What is important in the art system of play is a tactful and unimportunate Shevchenko’s echo. We can think here that they sing “Testament” non-randomly, and Shevchenko’s portrait, covered with Ukrainian towels is for some reason in Orisya’s room, and not only in hers but also in Kryvenko’s atelier (when Kolozup, who, as it turns out writes poems, he wants to be drawn as a genius. Kryvenko “removes the wall portrait of Shevchenko and places it near the wall”). Not equally motivated seems appearance of the first line of lyric and philosophical introduction to "Haydamaky" on Kryvenko’s lips. “All passes, all is gone…” – right before he takes a knife and “slowly tears the portrait apart”. Shevchenko in “Haydamaky” not only poetise pious revenge, but also objectively comprehends the horror of distructive spirit, whose apotheosis in the work comprises the scene from killing by Honta his own children(“catholic”). Hence the destroying of the picture by Kryvenko, and then killing his own child as the archetypical equivalent of critical sharpening of the conflict between the public and private, ideological and sensory, divine and terrestrial etc. which had place in the ancient Greek drama, in Bible, in Shevchenko’s poetry… V. Panchenko thinks about some variations of this motif in the novel by Guy de Maupassant “Confession” and the novel by G.d’Annucio “The guiltless victim” as components of the context of artistic researches of Vynnychenko. About the absolute materiality of this mythology imaginative motif in Vynnychenko’s art, which can multiply in variants, claims its double usage in the drama “Memento” (killing of the child ant tearing apart the picture are clearly rhymed here), and later showing up in the play “The Black Panther and the White Bear”, novels “Po-Sviy”, “Notes of Snub-nosed Mephistopel”, other works. Mythological symbolism of the figurative system of the play is underlined also by the used Latin title, showing the lined around dramatic situation to more wide context.
FRANKO’S SHEVCHENKIANA (stage directions on works of poet and image of T. Shevchenko in performances)
The author of an article makes the review of Shevchenko’s works in Ivan Franko National Academic Drama Theatre during its history (1920-2013), defines as the periods of most active uses of Shevchenko’s repertoire in the creativity of Ivan Franko Theatre’s professionals, as the “silence zones” of this theme, by explanation the last thing as the prohibitions of Shevchenko by totalitarian power and its fear before the incriminating force of Shevchenko’s words. It was especially noticeable in the 30s.
Gnat Yura was a director and an actor of newly created Ivan Franko Theatre, and he really understood the talent of national genius by making production “Shevchenko’s evenings” (March, 10, 1920) and “Haydamaky” by his own staging (March, 2, 1921). Paying tribute to the artistic value of the performance “Haydamaky”, staged by Kurbas’ theatre, Gnat Yura opens the way to the stage of this performance in his theatre. There was a short period during which were made performances: 1924 – in Kharkiv, by Gnat Yura staging and artistic direction (directors are V. Vasyliev, S. Semdor, E. Kokhanenko), 1925 – work is staged by O. Vatulia, 1927 – D. Shklyarskyi. Scenography of the all variants is made by M. Drak.
The word of T. Shevchenko invitingly sounded in Ivan Franko theatre at the period of the Great Patriotic War. In 1942, in the evacuation of troupe in Semypalatynsk, A. Buchma makes performance “Nazar Stodolya” (Art by M. Drak, music by P. Nischynskyi and N. Pruslin). Petro Sergienko, who played Nazar, showed by his courageous character the features of the “Son of Ukraine”.
In 1944, in evacuation in Tashkent, theatre showed the evening-concert, dedicated to the 130th anniversary from the poet’s birth, this evening had the same composition as the “Shevchenko’s evening” in 1920. The program was led by E. Ponomarenko. The role of Taras was played, as in 1920, by O. Yura-Yurskyi. Lead actors read the poems, including N. Uzhviy and O. Vatulia.
A new staging of “Nazar Stodolya” happened in 1951 (directors are A. Buchma, L. Dubovyk, art by A. Petrytskyi, music by P. Nischynskyi and L. Revutskyi). The play was carrying the paints of epic breadth, triumphal music vitality. Also this play was showed in Moscow during the Decade of Ukrainian literature and art (1951 too).
In the new historical and political status of Ukraine the drama “Nazar Stodolya” was showed to audience in 2009 (director is Y. Kochevenko, art by O. Vakarchuk, costume designer is K. Korniychuk). Interpretation emphasized the theme of Cossack warrior in love. Exquisite costumes, as on the podium, had to emphasize the material and spiritual culture of Ukraine in ancient times.
Notable place in the repertoire was taken by plays about T. Shevchenko and dramatic works based on his poetry: “Poet’s destiny” (directed by A. Buchma, art by M. Umanskyi, composer is K. Dankevych, in the role of T. Shevchenko – Y. Yura-Yurskyi); “Saint-Petersburg’s autumn” by O. Ilchenko (directed by B. Balaban, art by B. Nemechek, composer is V. Rozhdestvenskyi, in the role of T. Shevchenko are D. Milutenko and E. Ponomarenko); “Prophet” of I. Kocherga – the high level of Kocherga’s drama gave the possibilities to the director G. Yura, artistic directors E. Kovalenko and V. Kryvosheyina, actor D. Milutenko in the role of T. Shevchenko and ensemble of artists (K. Osmyalovska, O. Kusenko, G. Yablonska, G. Babenko, A. Gashynska, V. Goncharov, A. Skybenko, I. Markevych) to create the psychologically coherent performance.
In 1964, to the 150th anniversary of poet’s birth, Theatre staged the drama of M. Zarudnyi “Maryna”, based on works of T. Shevchenko (directed by V. Sklyarenko, art by L. Pysarenko, composer is P. Mayboroda). Taras Shevchenko was performed by M. Dosenko in “Prologue”, Maryna was successfully played by G. Yablonska.
The author of this article emphasizes that typology of staging Shevchenko works on the stage considerably changes at this period. Since these times, when the team was headed by an artistic director Sergiy Danchenko, psychological motivation of the images, created by the actors, became more sophisticated, the form of staging work also became more distinct and modern. The thesis of the article is confirmed by the analysis of such performances as “It seemed only one word…” by works of A. Malyshko (directed by S. Danchenko, scenography by D. Lider, the premiere was on April, 29, 1984), “Dreams by the Kobzar” (staging, performing, scenography by V. Kozmenko-Delinde, the premiere was on April, 14, 1995). B. Stupka’s talent of reincarnation in the first performance - (he as Shevchenko) - and in the second - the symbolic role of the Kobzar - defined high degree of personification and synthesis of images, dramatic, epic and lyrical actions.
Drama “Divine Solitude” by O. Denysenko (directed by O. Bilozub, scenography by A. Aleksandrovych-Dochevskyi, costume designer is T. Solovyova, musical arrangement by V. Gdanskyi, the premiere was on March, 9, 2003) professes psychoanalytic, existential approach to playing characters and fates of heroes, and, above all, its about the true image of Taras Shevchenko, which was elegantly played by P. Panchuk.
Shevchenko in Ivan Franko Theatre continues in the jubilee year of the Poet, because our love to the genius of Ukrainian nation is inexhaustible.
"Haidamaky" by Taras Shevchenko’s on the stage of Zankovetska national academic drama theatre (1922-1988)
According to the “Proletarska Pravda” newspaper Shevchenko’s “Haidamaky” were for the first time presented on the stage of Zankovetska Theatre on November 3, 1922 in Kyiv. The director Les Kurbas developed his former scenario preserving its staging structure and music based on peaces by such composers as Reinhold Gliere, Naum Pruslin and Kyrylo Stetsenko. The Kurbas’s invitation to Zankovetska theatre as director of the "Haydamaky" and his rapid promotion to the members of the artistic council caused anxiety inside the company. The old school actors firmly attached to the Ukrainian traditional drama were definitely against the new revolutionary approach preached by Kurbas. The director had to break through their resistance. This production became great opportunity for the rising of the new generation of actors after Zakovetska theatre had left Kyiv in 1923.
The second production of “Haidamaky” was dedicated to the 125th Anniversary of Shevcheko’s birthday. It was directed by Vasyl Harchenko and Ivan Bohachenko. The former also wrote a scenario. The scenography was done by Yuriy Stefanchuk and music by Olexander Radchenko. The first public performance took place on March 9, 1939. Five month later Soviet troops as allies of Nazi Germany occupied the territory of Western Ukraine which after Polish-Ukrainian war in 1918-1919 had stayed the Polish rule. The “Haidamaky” production telling the story of the Ukrainian rebellion against the Poles was just in time justifying the Soviet “liberation” of Western Ukraine.
In 1944 after Soviet troops for the second time occupied Western Ukraine (now “liberating” it from Germans) Znakovetska theatre was ordered to move to Lviv – the major city of the region. Here in 1963 the third production of “Haidamaky” took place. It was dedicated to the 150th Anniversary of Shevcheko’s birthday. Volodymyr Hrypych was invited to direct the Kurbas’s scenario (by that time Les Kurbas had been already reabilated).
Fourteen years later in 1988 preparing to celebrate 175th Shevcheko’s Anniversary the chief director of Zankovetska Theatre Fedir Stryhun decided to present “Haidamaky” for the second time on the Lviv stage. Both Lviv productions gained great success among the local public which since early production of Sevchenko’s “Nazar Stodolia” in 1864 developed and preserved great piety to the so-called Dnieper Ukraine drama.
THEATRICAL SHEVCHENKIANA OF TRANSCARPATHIA
The process of creation of theatrical Shevchenkostudying original chronicle from stagings of Shevchenko works and plays about the private poet’s life is concerned in the article. The chronicle consists of the two parties. The first one is about celebration of the poet’s jubilee dates by publical organizations. It was one of consisting parts of national culture renaissance in 1920s-1930s, the period of the history when Transcarpathia with name Pidkarpatska Rus (1919-1939) was included in Czechoslovakian republic. The second part begins with 1945, the year of Transcarpathia reunion with Ukraine. The celebration of poet’s jubilee dates was held within the frameworks of mass events at the official level with participation of theatres.
The first Shevchenko holiday took place on April 16, 1920. Its organizers were professor Ivan Pankevych and law assistant Danylo Stakhura. On December 21, 1919 they established “Rus cultural and educative committee” in Uzhgorod, which organize the concert dedicated to 59th poet’s commemoration in 1920. Transcarpathian Shevchenkostudying was continued by Rus theatre of “Prosvita Community” (1921-1929) in Uzhgorod. In April, 1921 the holiday concert and the premiere of drama “Involuntary” by M. Kropyvnytskyi was held. In a year the theatre demonstrated the “Naimychka” drama by I. Tobilevych. The chronicle is continued by “Gaidamaks” (1924) poem, “Katerina” opera by M. Arkas staging during 1924, 1925, 1927.
Staging of “Katerina” opera (17 April, 1932) by Rus theatre and by “Ukrainian national theatre” “New Stage” in Khust (1938-1939) were the next in chronicle. The premiere of “Gaidamaks” poem due to the 125th-anniversary of poet’s birthday on March 14, 1939 was prepared but according to the well-known historical events it hadn’t realized.
The second part of the chronicle started by the acquisition of Transcarpathian music and drama theatre, opened on November 7, 1946 by staging of the “Seer” play by I. Kocherga dedicated to the 100-th poet’s commemoration. In 1961 the chronicle was replenished with the staging of “Naimychka” by I. Karpenko-Karyi. The third time the “Naimychka” was staged in 1974.
The premiere of “Naimychka’s mother” by Gnat Ignatovych was played on January 19, 1963. The basic moments in it were taken from I. Tohobichnyi’s play, the “Naimychka” play and after T. Shevchenko’s works. In 1997 this creative work was again in the theatre’s repertoire.
Due to the 175-th Shevchenko’s birthday anniversary the theatre prepared the play “Convict” by Yuriy Udovychenko, the basis of which is staging of T. Shevchenko’s “Convict” and “Princess” plays. The theatrical pages are added by “Nazar Stodolia” stagings. The first was realized by Khust National Theatre in 1971.
The second one was made by Transcarpathian music and drama theatre. The play’s premiere took place on May 1, 2011. It’s in the group’s repertoire even nowadays.
The staging of theatrical Transcarpathian Shevcheknostudying were and are of great public and political importance and show the influential art and aesthetic from Kobzar’s heritage pleasure on the terrains of Silver Land.
INTERPRETATIONS OF “NAZAR STODOLIA” OF T. SHEVCHENKO ON STAGE OF KHARKIV SHEVCHENKO DRAMA THEATRE
The article reproduced theatrical history of T. Shevchenko’s drama "Nazar Stodolia" in Kharkov T. Shevchenko Drama Theatre. The artistic heritage of the poet for the group, which has its history from the "Berezil", always had a programmatic value. Therefore, appearance of single completed drama of the poet was not casual, it appeared on the stage of Kharkov theatre in 1939 (directed by V. Voronov, N. Veselov), in 1943 (directed by L. Dubovik), in 1953 (directed by V. Kraynychenko) and in 1972 (directed by. B. Meshkis).
The first production of "Nazar Stodolia" was in 1939, that took place in Ukraine in the 125th anniversary of Taras Shevchenko. Directors N. Voronov and V. Veselov solved play as a tragedy, and the final scene of this performance was a murder of Khoma Kychatyi by Gnat. Tragic sound of the performance certainly gave not only such final, but also the actor's playing. For example Khoma Kychatyi performed by Ivan Maryanenko, Gnat Karyi – D. Antonovich. Another feature of the performance was it’s poetry and lyricism. It was realized in the image of Ghalya performed by Valentina Chistyakova (at the same time in a general Galia’s and Nazar’s love line). The stylistic solution of the performance in 1939 was very laconic and restrained.
But the play did not last long in the current repertory. After the anniversary celebrations, in the end of the Shevchenko’s year it had been removed from the stage. But it’s unexpected revival occurred in 1943, when the theater was evacuated to Fergana, where also was the Lviv Chapel "Trembita". Probably the possibility of cooperation with the famous Ukrainian choir in theater productions, was that reason for L. Dubovik (who took a participation in the direction group in 1939) to renovate "Nazar Stodolia". The concept of this version and its stylistic solution differs from the version of 1939. Place of restraint and brevity had been replaced by the charm and vibrancy, heroic pathos became to dominate under poetry lyrism. Today the performance directed by L. Dubovyk in 1943, looks like an independent representation of the new director's vision, despite almost the same cast.
In 1953 realizing of "Nazar Stodolia" made a young director Vladimir Kraynychenko, M.Krushelnytskyi’s student. Decorator was the same as in 1939 – V. Hrechenko (much radical changes of visual image has not happened), the music for the play wrote L. Revutsky. V. Kraynychenko tried to emphasize the romantic and poetic line of the play, personal inner fillings of the main characters, that almost completely abandoned the heroic pathos. The director tried to lift the characters above the commonplace, wanted to tell the story, especially love, betting on young artists, their sincerity and directness.
The performance in 1972, which have a hard way to the audience, some serious rework and replacement of main actor, returned to a external asceticism inherent with performance’s interpretation in 1939. Direction group did an accent not on a social sound revelation, but on the Shevchenko’s play love lines, and so just as Kraynychenko, made a bet on youth actors.
So, in the stage version of Kharkiv T. Shevchenko Drama Theatre, that appeared in different historical conditions and on the otherwise cultural and artistic background, "Nazar Stodolia" crossed the path of socio-historical drama (with a pointed tragical sound) to folk-poetic legend about love and, ultimately, to the love story of Ukrainian Romeo and Juliet. In a rich stage history of the single Shevchenko’s play, set in Kharkiv T. Shevchenko Drava Theatre made a large page, directing interpretations demonstrated range of stylistic and genre searches, that may be possible within a single play, and the skill of performers is still excites the memory of viewers.
SHEVCHENKIANA OF KHARKIV SHEVCHENKO DRAMA THEATRE: VECTORS OF ARTISTIC SEARCH
The article deals with the T. H. Shevchenko Kharkiv Theater’s productions of the plays by Tarass Shevchenko as well as various adaptations of other works by the great poet and the plays by other playwrights dedicated to the Kobzar. During the Soviet period the plays to be staged in state theaters were carefully chosen, thus providing for active and diverse quest for creativity by actors and stage directors.
The article highlights three stage productions of Shevchenko’s Nazar Stodolia: 1939, 1953 and 1972. Based on theatrical reviews published in various periodicals, the author comes to the conclusion that directors V. Voronov an L. Dubovyk in 1939 attempted at making a performance topical for their times: a melodrama permeated with music, singing and dancing, was turned into costume play of everyday life with clearly accentuated social component; Kychaty’s monologue full of bitter remorse was eliminated from the finale. The former theater of “Berezil” consciously tried to avoid traditional interpretation of the play as the one of everyday life. Director V. Krainychenko in his production of 1953 made an attempt of interpreting Nazar Stodolia from the point of view of universal morality. The director tried to meet halfway the two requirements: the melodramatic nature of the play and the spectators’ traditional demands to make Nazar a national hero. V. Krainychenko made his Nazar a primarily lyric character, while Kychaty was made somewhat shallow. Such changes of accents belittled the acuteness of the struggle that tore apart at the time different social strata of the Cossacs. Yet, this attempt to change the play’s original genre by stressing its melodramatic element was understood as depreciation of Shevchenko’s work and rejected by both critics and the elder members of the theater’s company itself. The third production of Nazar Stodolia by V. Bozhko in 1972 was marked with a new interpretation of Shevchenko’s dramatic works. The director offered a new vision of the play as tragedy with murder in the finale: Kychaty refuses giving Halia to Nazar and is subsequently killed, while Nazar and Halia together with Hnat flee to Cossacs of Zaporizhzhia. Yet, despite brilliant performance of such outstanding actors as V. Ivchenko (Nazar), V. Maliar (Hnat), V. Shestopalov (Kychaty), the play proved to be stylistically traditional and did not mark a new level in understanding of Shevchenko’s drama work.
The re-production of The Haidamaks first staged by L. Kurbas (1961, directors O. Serdiuk and V. Krainychenko) was an attempt to revive the “Berezil” traditions. The company tried to make a modern version of the production by reconsidering the original ideas of L. Kurbas. Within the framework of a quest for new theatrical figurativeness, this version, however, turned out to be obsolete, illustrative, failing to meet the directing requirements of modern theater.
That was probably why a new production — M. Zarudnyi’s play Maryna based on Shevchenko’s works Maryna, The Princess, The Blind Woman, and Petrus’ (1964, directors V. Krainychenko and Ye. Kinshina) — was vividly marked with quest for psychological theater. A drama, whose plot was a traditional mix of social and everyday-life elements, typical of Shevchenko’s works, turned out to be a performance, psychologically convincing in its portraying of real human feelings and emotions. It owed much to participation of such eminent actors as L. Tarabarynov (Nazar) L. Popova (Maryna), O. Serdiuk (Denys Varta).
Another Shevchenko production was a stage version of Derision and Revenge by M. Kropyvnitskyi (1981, director Yakiv Reznykov). Having truly preserved the ideas and characters created by M. Kropyvnitskyi, however, the theater failed to find anything really close to Shevchenko’s poetry. Neither was the performance quite modern as the accent was made on melodramatic collisions and representing purely everyday characters from the days long past and gone.
A step in new visioning the life and activities of the great Kobzar was made in the production of The Road (1984), a stage version of the play by Z. Sahalov and O. Bieliatskyi. It combines the real facts and documentary evidence of contemporaries with imaginary events, with the mind’s creations of the poet. The generalized image of the Poet (his role was brilliantly played by V. Maliar) is aptly supplemented with images representing the different stages of his life: Boy (О. Kachan), Young Soldier (P. Rachinskyi), Old Soldier (L. Tarabarynov). Not all the actors successfully managed to cope with all the problems of double existence — realistic and imaginary — of their characters in that performance. Still, the main approach — grotesque and symbolic, highly metaphoric — convincingly added to the theater’s attempts to re-create and develop the leading motifs of the Kobzar’s works.
According to critics, “great contribution to the production’s success was made by Tetiana Medvid’s set design. Metaphoric symbol of the road, closely associated with the image of poet on his thorny way, was finely represented on stage.”
Thus, the company’s productions after the works by Kobzar did not become generally anything like grand theatrical events. Neither professional critics nor theater-goers ever welcomed any attempts to modernize performing Nazar Stodolia — from melodrama or tragedy to costume play of everyday life — as well as changing the accents in the characters’ actions, or amending the original text. Speaking of versions and imitations of Shevchenko’s motifs by other authors (Derision and Revenge by M. Kropyvnitskyi; Maryna by M. Zarudnyi; The Road by O. Bieliatskyi and Z. Sahalov), one can argue that they proved to be successful only if a director was able to offer a psychologically convincing explanation of their own vision and interpretation of the author’s text, and if performance met the requirements of modern-day life and/or the spirit of Shevchenko’s poetry.
THE PLAY “TARAS SHEVCHENKO” BY ZENON TARNAVSKYI ON THE STAGE OF THE UKRAINIAN YOUTH THEATER “ZAHRAVA” (1937, directed by V. Blavatskyi)
The drama “Taras Shevchenko” by a Ukrainian writer, journalist, theatre worker and critic, translator Zenon Tarnavskyi (1912–1962) has long been considered lost. The author of this article has found this drama among the archive documents and published it for the first time in 2013. This article is the first one to give an academic evaluation of Z. Tarnavskyi’s play, its place in the theatrical ‘Shevchenko discourse’, and especially the social role of its stage production in the difficult for Ukraine interwar period.
Young playwright Z. Tarnavskyi dared to show on stage a sacred for Ukrainians image of a poet, novelist, painter Taras Shevchenko (1814–1861) in a demystified manner, as a common person who feels doubt and anxiety. This drama became an artistic success owing to an insightful scenic interpretation of innovative stage director, follower of Les Kurbas – Volodymyr Blavatskyi (1900–1953) in 1937 at the Ukrainian youth theater “Zahrava” which toured around Eastern Halychyna in 1931-1938. The director staged the play as a “show” which combined motion-picture techniques (cross-cutting, artistic sequentialization of stagings-pictures) and concepts from passion plays and liturgies (clear biblical allusions; conceptual moves; choral singing of sacred writings). Actor Leonid Borovyk (1891-1942) acted as a protagonist.
The play “Taras Shevchenko” (first performance on March 8, 1937) clearly resonated with the life of Ukrainians in 1937 –in the country that did not belong to them, just like in Shevchenko’s times. Ukrainian nationalists and patriots were executed in the USSR (so-called Executed Renaissance), whereas in the Western Ukraine Ukrainians were persecuted and forced out of all spheres, and their historical memory was eradicated. So this drama, and especially its stage production, which deconstructed populist stereotypes about T. Shevchenko, shaped a new ‘worldly’ image of a poet – clear and familiar for the people of 20th century.
Taras Shevchenko’s works on dramatic stage during nazi occupation of Ukraine (1941-1944)
The resistance of the national culture to foreign oppressors is peculiar to the whole historical path of Ukraine. The activity of the theatre on a background of severe years of the Nazi occupation of Ukraine (1941-1944) provided a lot of materials for understanding the problem.
Ukrainian Soviet theatres were mostly evacuated. At the same time, the people of Ukraine, who stayed in the cultural vacuum, especially without theatre, created a new national scene, which was fundamentally different from the Soviet one by for the objectives. In the conditions of the Nazi genocide, the theatre expressed the idea of Ukrainian historical consciousness.
Disregarding the interests of independent Ukrainians, the Germans took them to a limited cultural autonomy. The density of the theatre was the greatest there. There was a reason of it. A lot of local artistic forces were called to the work at the Hitler’s direction, for the entertainment of his giant army on Ukrainian territory. Although military, soldier’s and front stages of Reich were actively used at the fronts.
Legitimacy, which was given by the enemy to the Ukrainian performing arts, gave a possibility for its active functioning and self-expression. It brought to theatres the million viewers-countrymen. German soldiers mostly preferred the musical genre. The Ukrainian audience got all the creative heritage of national art, where the Ukrainian classic dominated.
We should note the following detail: the “customers” didn’t forced national artists to do any propaganda, such as exalting Hitler and his big campaign, or to make fun of Bolshevism. Compared to the politicization of Soviet art, this fact seems to be a paradox of Nazi totalitarianism.
The cult of “Our powerful, respected and countrified King – great Taras Shevchenko” (Ulas Samchuk) activated in the professional and amateur stages of cities and towns.
In general, “Nazar Stodolya”, “Kateryna” (opera by M. Arkas), “Mother-wench” (staging by I. Tohobochnyi), “The Great Cellar” (directed by V. Blavatskyi, particularly in LOT) and “Haydamaky” played in the 44’s stages.The press of those times gives many examples of Shevchenko’s achievements both directing and acting performance.
Once again I emphasize: Shevchenko’s performances, his anniversaries always turned into the sacred events: Ukrainians consolidated around the Shevchenko’s idea of Fame, strengthening their spirit by the faith of the Prophet.
The Creativity of Taras Shevchenko during the Nazi occupation of Ukraine (1941-1944) formed the national-patriotic, ethical and aesthetic orientation of performing arts by the fundamental model of popular historical consciousness: Human - Moral - Motherland.
INTERPRETATION POTENTIAL OF CHOREOGRAPHIC SHEVCHENKIANA
Shevchenko 's poetic heritage is closely related to Ukrainian song and dance culture. Researchers of the great poet’s creative work found some evidence of his contemporaries that he was fond of Ukrainian dances and moreover was a good dancer. He felt the intrinsic nature of the dance saying of a great choreographic potential of his poetry.
Poetic images of Taras Shevchenko repeatedly realized into ballet stage . K.Dankevych’s ballet “Lileya” was staged at the scene of T. Shevchenko Kyiv State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre (now National Opera) as well as in other Ukrainian theatres. Ballet libretto written by Vs. Chagovets based on several works of Taras Shevchenko connected by a common theme of the national liberation struggle of Ukrainian peasants against their oppressors - landowners. The central character of the play - a gentle and graceful Ukrainian girl Lileya, which to defend their love turns into a strong, courageous woman, capable of revenge.
Premiere of "Lileya" took place in 1940 on the stage of the Kyiv Opera and Ballet Theatre. Н. Beresova made the production. Her performances are organically united Ukrainian folk choreography (H. Berezova consulted with well-known experts in Ukrainian folklore V. Verhovynets, V. Lytvynenko, M. Sobol ) and classical dance. "Lileya" staged by H. Berezova is a ballet-choreodrama where the plot of the play and the inner feelings of the characters come to the fore.
This trend of ballet action dramatization V. Vronskyy has developed in his "Lileya" productions: for his performance in the Kyiv Dovzhenko Film Studio in 1958 was filmed film-ballet of the same name, starred by well-known Ukrainian ballet masters Y. Yershova, R. Vizyrenko-Klyavin, O. Sehal, V. Ferro, B. Stepanenko, A. Byelov, V. Kalynovska and others.
In ballets of 1960s - 1970s there are features of symphonic drama that can be traced to early performances of A.Shekera - the choreographer of ballets "Witch" on V. Kyreyko’s music (1967, Lviv) and "Lileya" on Dankevych’s music (1976, Kyiv) on the works of Taras Shevchenko.
In 2004, the "Lileya" is back on the Kyiv scene staged by V. Kovtun. Choreographer revised the libretto of V. Chagovets and the score of K. Dankevych and made his performance mostly in the vocabulary of classical dance with the use of stylized elements of Ukrainian dance. The classic divertissements are the most interesting scenes of the play, where the choreographer’s talent and professionalism and a high level of mastery of the leading soloists of the National Opera O. Filip yeva, N. Lazebnikova, M. Chepik, A. Hura, M. Motkov and others manifested itself in full extent.
By setting "Lileya" in Odessa (2002) V. Troschenko created a completely original libretto by making the main character of the poet and his anxiety about the fate of their friends who became characters of his works. V. Troschenko in his production used a whole palette of dance styles (from classical to jazz-modern). Examples of interpretations of the play "Lily" show how different choreographers are trying to express their understanding of the works of the great poet.
Complex of messiah: Oleksandr Dovzhenko / Taras Shevchenko
In the article we are talking about attraction of Oleksandr Dovzhenko as the national prophet, that the Messiah was defined as a specific historical circumstances and traditions of Ukrainian literature and art. The role of the prophet is primarily viewed in the context of the spiritual tradition of Taras Shevchenko.
The question of leadership is traditionally considered to be the root cause permanent damage to the Ukraine and Ukrainians in the liberation struggle. As the inability of Ukrainians to form state institutions and hold them in the "working" state. This is partly confirmed by the events of the first months of 2014, when was shown almost total ineffectiveness of those very institutions.
The hope for personality of Messiah attempts and scale primarily a poet is largely determined the philosophy of history in the circles of the Ukrainian intellectuals of the early twentieth century. It is therefore not surprising opinion of Oleksandr Dovzhenko on the way of building and development of Ukraine as a sovereign player in the field of universal history. He tended to think about the need of a strong leader, without which Ukraine will look like, first of all, in the historical perspective not very serious. Of course, these views were influenced by how close to him in spirit and art views Taras Shevchenko, Nikolai Gogol and biblical Christian mythology, with which he was well informed.
The views of Dovzhenko largely consonant with Shevchenko understanding of historical fate of Ukraine. Because the poet as well the transformation of Ukraine, the culmination of that conversion is transferred into the future. It is also important that all this is connected with very specific idea about the role, mission of poet, artist. Here the poet must to perform a central role of the mediator, his task is to create the vision of the coming of the Golden age as a project of the Ukrainian future. Director, aswell as Shevchenko has a very holistic design of the future of the nation, and its conceptual building should be seen within the framework of the project.
Dovzhenko’s thinking marked by millenarism (a special type of savior) and messiahship. Human and people in general should be freed from the power of archaic ideas about the nature and the world, must escape from dependence on nature, go to the stage of sovereign existence, when there is no instincts, not mythology (about the same hidden treasure in particular) will determine human life, and rationally meaningful reform plan of being. Although already in the film “Zvenigora” (1928) by Dovzhenko we can see that to get beyond the actual archaic mythology managed not in all.
In General, in his early films ("Zvenigora", "Arsenal", " Zemlia\ Earth") Dovzhenko acts as quite traditional – as the Messiah, the prophet, for which the ideal, "holiday", maydanish, carnival occurrence of the Bright Future is unacceptable.
Why? For the future can be born only through suffering, through dramatic trials. It reminds our current realities - Evromaydan 2014 is going on in a different coordinate system: sacrifice of "heaven hundred" acts as guarantee of the occurrence of the future "Golden age" of Ukraine, its movement in the European womb. Only in trials is born the Messiah, and therefore from the Talmudic authorities still continues the tradition of expressiveness of motive so-called birth pangs of the Messiah - the misery and suffering unimaginable force that must precede breakthrough Messianic time.
Installing on playing tragic complex of the national prophet, the Messiah is explained much in the image of Taras Shevchenko. As Dovzhenko creates its own myth – by mediation of their texts (in military and post-war period, mainly as befits a prophet, using literary, by verbal texts). The motive of personal sacrifice on the altar of the nation, people are especially significant in Dovzhenko life during the war years, when he was subjected to a devastating criticism of the state of the mountain, from Joseph Stalin, with all relevant consequences.
After the disasters of the Second world war Dovzhenko look into the future filled with optimism. It is based on the already less based on strong personality (affected critical results of the Stalin era), and more on the people that started to rebuild the country after the tremendous human casualties and destruction. In the “Story of a fiery years” and “Poem of the sea” (1950-ies) focus is on people, its power, its beauty and ability to overcome evil historical fate.
BETWEEN THE MYTH AND THE TRUTH: interpretation of the image of Taras Shevchenko in ukrainian documentary of soviet period (1918-1991 years)
In the article the evolution of screen’s presentation of Taras Shevchenko and his cultural heritage in Ukrainian documental film is revealed. Althou art methods of national directors and cameramen, which in spite of the censorship and political mythology’s indoctrination made a prominent aesthetical Kobzar’s dimension, have been researched.
First, the screen image of Taras Shevchenko at Soviet period has been built quite carefully. This was associated with an awareness of the value of the power figures for Ukrainians by this poet. Concealing no sense, therefore ideologues through artists cinema constructed the myth of Taras Shevchenko as a predictor of whether the establishment of Soviet power in Ukraine.
Secondly, the matrix on-screen image of the poet in newsreels was mainly formed in the late 1930's. It included three basic thematic layers: a) Shevchenko is a symbol of enslaved by tsarism Ukrainian people, which were liberated with a help of the Russian revolutionary circles; b) Shevchenko is an internationalist and humanist; c) Shevchenko is revolutionary, anticlerical and fighter for social justice. Screen works later time more or less considered the ideological listed. Only in the late 1980s, these myths are starting to succumb to erosion, giving rise, however, other legends of the poet, the significantly with religious flavor.
Thirdly, in artistic terms newsreels and documentaries have come a long evolution of fixation of events (usually unveiling of a monument to Taras Shevchenko) after a short period of mounting film composed of fragments filmed earlier chronicles (model Esfir Shub) to produce valuable and aesthetically accomplished works of the 1960s and the second half of the 1980s, most producers have tried to use all available means of visual impression to screen image Shevchenko, despite the ideological and thematic constraints, was multidimensional. Peak experimentation and finding new directorial moves took place in the 1960s.
Fourth, newsreels and film propaganda compared to other types of cinema suffered most from the effects of the ruling at the time “method” of socialist realism. This led to some imbalances in the development of the poet’s artistic image when monumental and normative principles of aesthetics were factors of it’s partial dehumanization. Check out the historical truth and concealment of individual sections of the biography of the poet formed a favorable environment for the creation of new myths on the screen, favorable political top. However directors to retain professional reputation, often resorted to methods of allusion, when the image was created through images of Taras Shevchenko under the conditions of Ukrainian contemporary. So, despite unfounded and politically due to screen hyperbole, could at least partially confirm the continuity of the Ukrainian cultural tradition in its folklore purely national terms.
Taras Shevchenko’s theme in the works of first Ukrainian cameramen O. Kalyuzhnyi and M. Topchii in 1920s-30s
Soon Ukrainians celebrate the 200th birth anniversary of Taras Shevchenko, this event served as a reason to start the analysis of Shevchenko issues films in the context of studying the problems of Soviet-Ukrainian cinema. Also, our present makes it possible to assess the impact of the poet’s literary heritage on cinema workers in the 1920s-30s without the Soviet political engagement and for the first time in Ukrainian film critic develop the theme of the national cameramen art. Unfortunately, in the books of the Soviet period the directors of photography assigned cursory role. Because of the ideological dictate and repression their heritage was distorted. Today, there is access to new materials and scientific development that allow a holistic view of life and works of the first Ukrainian cameramen in historical retrospect.
Back to the great poet and painter Taras Shevchenko, need to remind that interest in his person at the culture area was always existed - not too attentive, but steady. His veneration was and will be, regardless of the political and ideological objectives of the time. So it is not surprising that the Shevchenko’s theme needed fixing at the tape. The first Ukrainian cameramen O.Kalyuzhnui and M.Topchiy used interesting pictorial techniques of the screen and innovative methods of cinema filming. The tandem Kavaleridze-Kalyuzhniy and Kavaleridze - Topchiy is analyzed. Their relationship with the cultural traditions of Ukraine in such films like Downpour, Koliivshina, Prometheus serve as excellent examples of the top directors of photography works. All together (I.Kavaleridze, O.Kalyuzhniy and M.Topchiy) find in their movies equivalent of sculptural plasticity. Employing graphic sharpness, symbolism, and landscapes to capture the psychological pattern in nature, director and cameramen pushed innovation in the direction of an entirely new, expressively dynamic mode of composition. Chiseling character close-ups with light, they revealed the internal development of dynamic action in otherwise visually static scenes.
Kalyuzhnui and Topchiy were such as “eyes” of the directing-screenwriting plan. Cameraman found exciting views, were attentive to details and have traveled the world. All this was done for the successful forming cinema as art, and poet modernization. The secret of their success lies not in the amount of techniques but it was the original philosophy, which was a model for whole young filmmakers in the 1920s-50s.
Based on the application of scientific methods of analysis (system analysis, narrative and iconographic way interpreting the film) exploring the development of visual trends in the context of enhancing creative skills cameramen on the example of films popularized the creative legacy of the great poet.
CINEMA BIOGRAPHY OF T. SHEVCHENKO: RECONSTRUCTION OF CONJECTURE
Various social, political and intellectual groups were constructing the image of Taras Shevchenko as a cultural hero, top personality of the national-consolidating mythology in various ways.
The study seeks to reconstruct actual practices employed in the course of developing the script of Taras Shevchenko biopic (1951) in the context of Stalin era movies making industry, which was vested with the role of the most efficient medium of ideological and historical representation.
The study’s topicality is determined by the contradictory attitude to the recent past. Soviet art was an important segment of this past. The impression about communist dictatorship successfully controlling every aspect of art’s production industry is being transformed now with more and more evidence of inefficiency of state control over this sphere.
The study’s novelty is reinforced by the aspect that the script’s reproduction will be illustrated with the assistance of archive materials and documents related to that day communication: minutes of the meetings on discussing the script; notes taken at the meetings of Art Councils (Supervisory Boards to keep an eye over the content) as well as Communist Party structures; reviews; letters and memories. These contribute to make explicit the impact of ideological and extra-art factors over the script’s text production.
The author provides basic facts and reproduces the context of appealing to the personality of Taras Shevchenko in cinematography in 1918-1951. The study is grounded on the significant number of sources researched and tracks back various formats of creative exaggeration and ideological manipulations with T. Shevchenko’s biography while “building on” his bio: from 1939 to 1951 Shevchenko was gradually more and more being positioned as a true comrade of M. Chernyshevsky and Dobrolyubov, although there have been no evidence of their knowing each other found.
The author of the study makes a special note about ambivalence of the Soviet model of historical memory: from one side Shevchenko is revered to be a “Founding Father” of Ukrainian nation; from the second side he is deemed to be a person “calling Russia (means simple folk) to take its axe”.
CINEMA SHEVCHENKIANA OF VASYL GRYGOROVYCH KRYCHEVSKYI
Vasyl Grygorovich Krychevskyi (1901-1978) is one of the outstanding figures of Ukrainian culture, artist, architect, and pedagogue. He was the author of a number of projects which were realized in life. Among them the building of the Poltava Zemstvo, of the school named after M. S. Hrushevskyi in Kyiv. He was professor of the Ukrainian academy of arts (from 1922 – the Institute of plastic art). At the Institute of architecture V.G. Krychevskyi gave the course of composition, of Ukrainian architectural forms and architectural drawing. He also made notable contribution into the development of Ukrainian cinematography. In particular, his creative collaboration with Oleksandr Dovzenko on the “Zvenygora” which acquired world fame, is widely known. Not less known is Krychevskyi’s work in Petro Chardynin’s film “Taras Shevchenko” (1926) which is of great artistic interest and value.
Petro Chardynin’s films were marked by high cinematographic culture. The film director could harmoniously and in a masterly manner form production units and cast actors in an exact way. In the film “Taras Shevchenko”, the leading role was played by one of the most talented Ukrainian actors Amvrosiy Buchma, the leading member of the theatre group “Berezil”. By his side were such performers as Yurii Shumskyi, Ivan Zamychkovskyi and others.
P. Chardynin realized that to achieve high artistic result it was necessary to immerse the action into maximum trustworthy historical medium. Otherwise actors’ efforts would remain unavailing. So, Vasyl Krychevskyi became one of Chardynin co-authors, and it was he who helped the film director to reveal the essence of the Shevchenko theme by his own means of artistic expressiveness.
Chardynin’s historical biopic devoted to Taras Shevchenko stands out against other films thanks to its magnitude because it highlights the most significant events of the poet’s life – from his childhood to death.
It was supposed that the film would be made in a quite traditional psychological manner. This factor determined the character, as well as orientation of the art director’s work. In the process of making the film it became clear that the only and main factor for achieving success was proper and done in time preparation for the shooting period. So, working for days and days, and Ukrainian village Krychevskyi created the drafts of the properties, dress and certain heroes characteristic for the epoch, and prepared designs of the interiors for shooting in the soundstage.
Together with the film director Krychevskyi traveled round Ukraine seeking for location shooting sites. The scene of Shevchenko’s funeral was especially difficult and crucial. 500 extras dressed into various costumes of the poet’s friends, relatives, crowds of people, policy, and mounted gendarmes filled the street. Krychevskyi carefully followed that not a single small article of modern life – though it were a signboard, an electric street-lamp, a wire, a new building – should get into the field of a shot and spoil the picture. All the important scenes of Shevchenko’s arrival, arrest, funeral, and tomb were made with exceptional exactness.
All those people who worked with V.G.Krychevskyi in cinema had a high opinion of his wide culture, greet erudition, artistic taste, almost inexhaustible creative capacity and ingenuity.
By his works and insistence and, perhaps, by his own example, Krychevskyi raised the general cultural-artistic level of Ukrainian cinematographers who had great opportunity to work with him.
V.G.Krychevskyi as an artist exerted every effort to the cause of the formation of cinematography, made weighty contribution into the development of Ukrainian cinema which is impossible to overestimate.
TOUCH SHEVCHENKO: HAPTIC AESTHETICS OF FILMS “LILEIA” AND “NAIMYCHKA”
From the beginning of cinema's existence directors and film theorists were interested in the physiological properties of this medium. However, this question was not in the center of attention due to the ocularcentric paradigm which supported the idea of prevalence of vision above the other senses. Nevertheless, the «re/turn to the body» in the 1990-s became more distinct in film theory. The works of V.Sobchack, S.Shaviro, L.Marks, J.Barker, L.Williams and B.Creed can be said to be a part of this turn. L.Marks offers a new conceptual framework, bringing attention to the «haptic visuality» - type of audience and film where «eyes function as organs of touch». Developing this approach, this article offers the term «haptic aesthetics» for describing the practice of affective haptic perception and expression of spatial and temporal organization of the film. There are three levels on which haptic aesthetics can manifest itself in cinema: haptic visuality, kinesthetics and proprioception of the film and temporality of the film.
The aim of the article is to study the phenomenon of haptic aesthetics through the close reading in the music films «Lileia» (1959) and «Naimychka» (1964) and to reveal the characteristic traits of this phenomenon in the framework of the Soviet cinema of the Thaw.
The analysis demonstrates that the elements of haptic visuality and kinesthetics are actively used in the film. The characteristic trait of this use for both films is the expression of the sensory experience. Both «Lileia» and «Naimychka» express the physical sensations of collective activity through haptic visuality and kinesthetics: the energetic peasants' dance in the first case and their happy collective labour in the second case. The expression of the affective experience is also similar: both films employ haptic visuality for expression of the romantic experience. The similarities exist also in the expression of the change of temporal modality, although in «Naimychka» this expression is more developed and does not require the additional explanation and preparation of the audience. Hapticality of the scenes is created with the help of compositional methods, as well as through special technical means.
The characteristic trait of «Naimychka» is full freedom in its figurative expression which is caused by the film's genre, as well as a broader context of the Thaw development in cinema. Haptic visuality and kinesthetics, together with the experiments with colour, are employed in the film with the aim of intensifying the affective experience of the audience and identification with the main character through the sensation of touch.
Both «Lileia» and «Naimychka» can be categorized as the films of the Thaw due to their special stylistics, the use of nature as an organic component of the action and the attention to the expression of the characters' inner feelings. At the same time, it can be stated that because of their original aesthetics these films lay the foundation to the Ukrainian poetic cinema – which is manifested in later use of some cinematographic elements of the films in «Shadows of the Forgotten Ancestors» by S.Paradzhanov. Haptic aesthetics of the cinema of the Thaw is a complex and multi-dimensional phenomenon. Thus, the study of the interrelation of haptic aesthetics of the analyzed films other works of poetic school of Ukrainian cinema can be a productive perspective of further research.
IMAGE OF HISTORICAL FIGURE AS FENOMENON OF NATIONAL SCREEN CULTURE
Subject of research – nationally-significant personality in screen culture – is of particular interest because it is a phenomenon in which combined properties of the most expressive artistic image as a general category of aesthetics.
Nationally-significant historical figure in art considered to be a phenomenon which concentrates on mythological motifs of “cultural hero”, and signs of the ideal and the social mission of a particular historical period and cultural memory of generations.
Specificity of screen embodiment of the nationally-significant figure is that the national hero always has a positively charged core, the status of certain social and ethical canon. At the same time such a hero in his artistic icon reflects actual changes in society and significant phenomena era.
In this article, under the "nationally-significant historical personality" we mean a person whose influence on the national culture is generally accepted by the people for generations, despite the changing political realities, and its contribution to the cultural heritage is undeniable, and is the epitome of certain ideas, the key to the fate of the historic and self-determination of the people. Such a person is in the range of the constant themes of art reproduced in the artistic language of the new generation, a new era.
This is what happens with the figure of Taras Shevchenko in Ukrainian cinema. Image of Taras Shevchenko consistently embodies in Ukrainian movies in the 1920-th, 1950-th, 1960-th, 1990-th and 2000-th. These chronological point draws a kind of graph of social-political and cinematographic life of Ukraine, the turning points of the country's history and development of national cinema, stretching or cutting segments and showing their vector.
Throughout history, national cinema art was accumulated baggage of screen embodies of Taras Shevchenko. In today's screen format – TV series – preserves all these basic features, besides added television genre specificity accented for a mass audience, as well as notably adaptation of facts and concepts to the language of modern information flow. This seems to be heredity screen poetics enrichment means of expression, new forms of visual expression combined with through ideological motives – all this is testimony of hero self-sufficient, universal mifopoetics screen existence in the national culture.
CHANGE OF PARADIGM OF CINEMA SHEVCHENKIANA
Being a quintessence of the Ukrainian spirit, T. Shevchenko opens for all future generations brand new possibilities of his artistic heritage interpretations and to understanding of our country development inherent therein vectors. Panorama of the poet’s works screen interpretations contains rich material for the study of the cultural values, geopolitical principles and manipulative technologies evolution at different periods of the Ukraine modern history. The purpose of this article is to identify the significant changes in the approaches of modern domestic cinematography and screen media in general to the phenomenon of Taras Shevchenko.
The reason for writing of the article was the extraordinary non-fiction film projects competition dedicated to the life and works of Taras Shevchenko organized by the Ukrainian State Film Agency in September, 2013 according to the general Plan for the preparation and celebration of the 200th anniversary of the birth of Taras Shevchenko and 150th anniversary of his reburial, approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of 02.03.2011, No. 167-p. Cinematic Shevchenkiana paradigm shift is investigated on the basis of comparative analysis of the pictures and film materials made in different periods of the national history. For disclosure of visual constituents of the Soviet screen Shevchenkiana were used films, newsreels and TV programs produced from 1918 to 1961 from the collection of the Central State Cinema Photo Fono Archive of Ukraine named by G. Pshenychnyi.
This chronological framework covering periods of favorable and phobic state's attitude towards the development of national culture. Meaning of the study was to find the way how Russian centric Soviet culture has shaped the perception of the work and personality of Taras Shevchenko.
In the analyzed screen materials there was no consideration of any poet’s ideas, even his heritage painter was highlighted only in three films. In fact, all the ideological and artistic range of his work, with a limited exception was left beyond discussion. Soviet culture, officially giving tribute to the spiritual leader of Ukraine, really leveled the relevance of his ideas and formalized perception of its image. Consideration of different themes and artistic solution of the projects submitted for the competition to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the poet, lets say that they are 100% focused on creative interpretation of the personality and works of the poet. According to this data all the projects differ significantly from the Soviet Shevchenkiana, semantic dominant of which – according to contemporary ideological attitudes – was leveled relevance of the ideas of the poet, the formalization of the perception of his image . Some projets reflect the aspirations of contemporary Ukrainian cinema to reflect the ontological relationship between history and the present, organic presence of Shevchenko’s heritage in the discourse of contemporary national culture.
Addressed to the young audience and intended for screening in movie theaters, these projects are marked with search for new opportunities of screen expression. They provide material for further analysis of the role of cinema in the education process.
ACADEMIC BULLETIN OF KYIV NATIONAL KARPENKO-KARYI UNIVERSITY OF THEARE, CINEMA AND TELEVISION
Maiia Harbuziuk Comic-opera «Siren from Dniester»: about genesis of stage characters of ukrainians in Polish theatre in first half of 19th century
Lesia Ovchiieva Stage embodiment of «Stolen happiness» by Ivan Franko in company with the guidance of P. K. Saksaganskyi and M. K. Sadovskyi with I. K. Karpenko-Karyi and Mykola Sadovskyi Kyiv theatre
Oksana Palii Ivan Kavaleridze and Ukrainian drama thetre in Romny (1918–1925)
Svitlana Maksymenko Theatrical and artistic life of Lviv in 1941–1944
Valerii Fialko Issues and tendencies of development of Ukrainian drama theatre figural language in 1970s
Yevhen Vorobiov Adaptation of mass audience to theatre culture
Roman Rosliak Influence of ukrainization process on personnel policy in ukraininan cinema (1920s–early 1930s)
Larysa Naumova «It is a way the movie become expressionism»: the german expressionism in the works of ukrainian theorists and practitioners in 1926
Olha Pashkova Style of the ukrainian film press of 1930th
Daria Zoloieva Aesthetics of absurd as a part of existential cinema world of Michelangelo Antonioni
Maryna Morienova Reflection of disasters in screen art
Oleksandr Priadko Plasticity of cinematographic image and its components
SCIENS OF CULTURE
Olena Onishchenko Oscar Wilde: reverse side of aestheticism
Kateryna Stanislavska Artist and audience: view on relations in modes of postmodern spectacular culture
OLEKSANDR ZAHAROV IN UKRAINIAN THEATRE (1918–1925)
Ruslan Leonenko Oleksandr Zaharov in State drama theatre (Kyiv, 1918–1919): organizational aspects
Hanna Veselovska In stagnation of history: Oleksandr Zaharov at the head of Shevchenko theatre (1919–1921)
Olena Bonkovska Oleksandr Zaharov in Ukrainian national theatre of «Ukraiinska besida» Company (1921–1923): realism–psychologism–symbolism
Vasyl Andriitso Oleksandr Zaharov – director and artistic leader of Ruthenian theatre of «Prosvita» company in Uzhhorod (1923-1925)
Bohdan Kozak Oleksandr Zaharov and Mariia Zankovetska state theatre (1926)
Halyna Botunova O. Zaharov as artistic leader of Kharkiv state theatre (1927–1928)
Alina Marchenko Matherials about Oleksandr Zaharov in collections of Museum of theatre, music and cinema art of Ukraine
Oleksandr Bezruchko Cinema experiment workshops (CEW) as a form of engagingyouth in cinema
Mykhailo Uzhynskyi Specificity of art of artistic reading recording in the context of sound image creation
Svitlana Maksymenko Kyrchiv. R. National artist Ivan Rubchak
Heorhii Cherkov «Kino» (1925–1933): systematic index of the contents of magazine «Radianske kino» (1935–1938): systematic index of the contents of magazine
Nataliia Vladymyrova Haidabura V. Theatre dispersed all round the world
Yana Partola Ukrainian theatre of 20th century: Anthology of performances
Oksana Musiienko H. Cherkov. Screen world – dialogue of realities
COMIC-OPERA “SIREN FROM DNIESTER”: ABOUT GENESIS OF STAGE CHARACTERS OF UKRAINIANS IN POLISH THEATRE IN FIRST HALF OF 19th CENTURY
Nowadays, comic-opera “Siren from Dniester” by Y. N. Kaminsky is almost unstudied in Ukrainian and Polish theatre studies. It was created in 1813-1814 for mounting needs of Lviv Polish theatre headed by Y. N. Kaminsky. This opera existed onstage for almost 50 years thus it became a cultural phenomenon. In addition, “Siren from Dnister” had scenic history in activities of theatre groups within the territory of Right-Bank Ukraine and Kyiv.
In the course of investigation of Ukrainian theme in the repertoire of Polish theatres in the first half of 19th century, “Siren from Dnister” can be dated back as the first play with a presence of Ukrainian language and Ukrainian characters.
Y. N. Kaminsky remade popular at that time in European theatres opera-comique “Maiden from Danube” by K. Hensler and F. Kauer. He moved actions from banks of the Danube to the territory of Dniester – a big river on the territory of Ukraine. This choice was caused by the fact that Dniester because of some historical and political events from late Middle Ages to the end of 18th century was part of Rzeczpospolita and served as a cultural code for Polish people. An image of count’s castle on the bank of Dnister was perceived by Polish audience as a symbol of their territory.
At the same time, Y. N. Kaminsky was one of the first actors and artists of 19th century who broaden frame of monoculture by adding characters of residents of this territory – Ukrainian people that were colonized for centuries by Polish authorities. The presence of Ukrainian characters in the final climactic scene of the first part of the play had not only ethnographic but also ethic meaning and underlined importance of peasant community in the life of count’s castle. However, the most important figure from Ukrainian characters was an image of Cossack Harastko that took part in the activities of the second part of the opera. He is characterized as clever, brave, honest, humorous bandura player and all these features are typical for works of “Ukrainian school” in Polish literature of Romanticism and recreate image of “ideal Cossack”. The brightest episode in Ukrainian theme is so called “Ruska scene” in the second part of the opera.
Two characters in Ukrainian national clothing – Cossack Harastko and girl Paraska (actually it is the main character Milona) – met each other in this scene and talk and sing in Ukrainian language. Text of the dialogue is written not in cyryllic but in Latin characters. However the lexis and rhythmic pattern of this scene show that it is written with profound knowledge of Ukrainian language, traditions and culture. Rhythm that was used in this scene can be described as “kolomyika rhythm” and is typical for later practice of poem writing in Ukrainian and Polish poetry of 19 century. On the basis of reprinting of these texts in later collections we proved that Y. N. Kaminsky is the author of this scene.
Thus, we may state that Y. N. Kaminsky was one of the first Polish authors and artists of 19th century who paid attention to the culture of colonized nation. At the same time his approach to introduction of Ukrainian characters on Polish stage has positive coloring, high ethic level and profound knowledge of Ukrainian language and culture.
As a result, we should consider a theatre of 19 century as one of the factors in the formation of “Ukrainian school” phenomenon in Polish literature and talk about genesis of Ukrainian theme in Polish dramaturgy and theatre as one that chronologically outpaced similar processes in literature.
STAGE EMBODIMENT OF “STOLEN HAPPINESS” BY IVAN FRANKO IN COMPANY WITH THE GUIDANCE OF P. K. SAKSAGANSKYI AND M. K. SADOVSKYI WITH I. K. KARPENKO-KARYI AND MYKOLA SADOVSKYI KYIV THEATRE
The publication is devoted to the history of staging of Ivan Franko’s drama "Stolen Happiness". Specific features of the primary reading of Franko are observed for the first time on stage of “Ruska besida” company directed by K. Pidvysotskyi in 1893. Judging by the reviews of the media and the impressions of Ivan Franko himself, the ideological load of the primary background of his work was leveled, because instead of Mykhailo Hurman-policeman, Hurman-rural-postman acted in the play, and the real policeman appeared only in the performance finale as a personification of order and justice. However, even with this "edited" content the performance was seen by the public as very favourable. Together with K. Pidvysotskyi as Mykola Zadorozhnyi the best actors of the troupe starred: S. Yanovych (Mykhailo), A. Osypovycheva (Anna) and O. Pidvysotska (Nastya).
In the early twentieth century with all existing numerous theatre companies in Upper-Dnieper Ukraine, the troupe of united prominent figures of Ukrainian theatre (1900) that stood out in the artistic and creative activities most clearly, included M. Kropyvnitsky, M. Zankovetska, M. Sadovskyi, P. Saksaganskyi and I. Karpenko-Karyi. After M. Kropyvnytskyi and M. Zankovetska left the troupe it changed its name into "Malorossiyska troupe under the direction of P.K. Saksaganskyi and M.K. Sadovskyi with the assistance of I.K. Karpenko-Karyi”. This troupe’s performances aroused passionate interest and positive approval everywhere, as the new plays “Gandzya” and “Vanity” by I. Karpenko-Karyi and “Forest Flower” by L. Yanovska were staged for the first time; moreover, M. Sadovskyi for the first time in Eastern Ukraine staged I. Franko’s ”Stolen Happiness”.
After Zankovetska left the troupe the team came across the problem of the lead female role. P. Saksaganskyi invited Lubov Linytska, a famous actress of that time, to star in the performance. She, being full of creative energy, got the troupe’s titanic creative activity load. The actress performed some roles for a hundred or even more times (Marusya in "Oh Hryts, Do Not Go to the Party", Aza in "Aza, the Gypsy", Kharytyna in "Hireling", Natalka in "Vanity", Gandzya in "Gandzya") and worked with genuine natural temperament.
The opening night of Franko’s "Stolen Happiness" directed by M. Sadovskyi in the company of brothers Tobilevych took place in Kiev on February 5, 1904, starring I. Karpenko-Karyi as Mykola Zadorozhny, L. Linytska as Anna and M. Sadovskyi as Mykhailo. In general, the actors’ interpretation of the characters was not deep enough so it shifted the play’s tone into the melodramatic one.
However, judging from the available materials, the Mykola’s role performed by I. Karpenko-Karyi was the most consistent with the author's interpretation of the character. The actor conveyed the process of maturity psychologically subtly showing the transformation of Mykola’s character from the innocent victim to the conscious protest in an unequal struggle with his tormentor, the policeman.
Eight years later, M. Sadovsky turned to staging "Stolen Happiness" for the second time, but now in his Kiev theatre. The premiere took place on March 7, 1912, having a great success, and what critics called "an excellent production" this time starring S. Pankivskyi as Mykola Zadorozhnyi, I. Marianenko as Mykhailo and L. Linytska as Anna again. In the actors’ performance, as testified by the witnesses, was an absolute ensemble, where the leading force was Anna Zadorozhna. Anna played by Linytska is a complex character, who is a real heroine. Although she is simple, beaten by her life and tragic circumstances, she does not give in to her fate, but bravely fights for women's happiness and defies all the prejudices and customs that evolved over the centuries.
L. Linytska as one of the first performers of Anna Zadorozhna’s role in the theatre of Upper-Dnieper Ukraine, did not only scenically affirm Franko’s heroine as a woman of strong feelings who could challenge the circumstances, but started the foundation for the future of famous performers of this role, such as N. Dotsenko, L. Kryvytska and N. Uzhvii.
After K. Pidvysotskyi’s and M. Sadovskyi’s productions, the immortal Franko’s play "Stolen Happiness" got firmly established in the repertoire of not only Ukrainian theatre but also confidently crossed the borders of Ukraine.
IVAN KAVALERIDZE AND UKRAINIAN DRAMA THEATRE IN ROMNY (1918-1925)
The article focuses on a well- founded historiographical survey into the life and creative work of Ivan Kavaleridze.
The article deals with artistic activities of Ivan Kavaleridze in the field of theatre directing and sculpture in Romny in the 10-20-ss of the XX century within the intricate framework of social, political, and historical processes. The introduction into scientific set of materials that have never been published before makes it possible to analyze drama theatre as the artistic phenomena of the past from the perspective of present-day positions and tendencies, different aspects of Ivan Kavaleridze’s life and creative work as the theatre director on a larger scale.
The initial stage of Ivan Kavaleridze’s work as a theatre director which reached its peak especially at the beginning of the 20-s century was not highlighted enough in the scientific literature of Romny due to the ideological censorship in the Soviet times. Therefore, it makes sense to present Ivan Kavaleridze’s creative work in Romny chronologically starting with his work as the theatre director and then a sculptor. Being particularly successful organizer and theatre director, Ivan Kavaleridze became one of leading and towering figures of the Ukrainian cultural process in the 10-20-ss within XX centuries.
Ukrainian theatre played an important role in the social and cultural life by promoting the Ukrainian language, literature, music art of 10-20-ss within XX centuries. It was the only place where Ukrainian could be heard. The Ukrainian theatre was enlivening art centre that rallied the national public and cultural forces on the territory of the Russian empire.
The plays staged at the theatre turned into art actions, revived the national self-consciousness and helped Ukrainians feel that they were a community with the future.
I. Kavaleridze is one of few people who went down in history of world theatre and whose name is remembered today and will be remembered in the future.
THEATRICAL AND ARTISTIC LIFE OF LVIV IN 1941-1944
For the first time the article on the basis of newspaper articles of Second World War Lviv illustrates a wide range of national cultural and artistic life of the city, which became active under the influence of artistic activity of Ukrainian theatre of Lviv * – Lviv Opera House (1941–1944).
Concerts, plays, theaters, clubs (within the limits allowed by German occupational authorities), different professional artistic unions led to the fact that during extreme war period Lviv has become not only the epicenter of nationally-educational and theatrically-concert activity of the region but also artistic platform of modern Ukrainian nation formation. Here national and world classicists were honored, the spectator’s culture was formed, and Europeanism was established in the consciousness of Halychyna people (which was denied by the Soviet occupants). Being supported by Lviv Opera House, Ukrainian artists honored T. Shevchenko, M. Lysenko, Lesia Ukrainka with solemn academies. Such ceremonies awoke the average spectator’s previously «lulled» and destroyed genetic memory, formed social stand, brought up aesthetic taste.
The importance and role of national scene during Second World War in Lviv become even more significant in the context of the then existing illiteracy statistics among youth under 14. As of February 1943 there was over million of the illiterate in General Province! The facts of visiting Ukrainian theatre of Lviv – Lviv Opera House, are also provided in statistics and figures. Only during the first two theatrical seasons the theatre was visited by 520 thousands of spectators. Among them – 350 thousands of Ukrainians, 250 thousands of Germans and allies. The occupational authorities’ Administrative board of the city provided 1, 5 mln. PLN.
In the article the activity of drama sector of Ukrainian Theatre of Lviv – Lviv Opera House is considered in the interactions: theatre – city, theatre – society, theatre – theatrical criticism. During three seasons of Lviv Ukrainian theatre – Lviv Opera House 1941–1944 with its diversity and intensive activity (opera, operetta, ballet, drama) in Lviv quite a numerous section of theatrical reviewers was formed: М. Rudnytskyi, O.Bodnarovych, I. Nimchuk, O. Tarnavskyi, B. Nyzhankivskyi. M. Semchyshyn, Yu. Kosach, V. Barvincskyi, B. Melianskyi, A. Benderskyi, R. Yendyk, etc. Artistic publications of honorable writers qualitatively raised the bar of spectator’s insistence on high standards and professional level of local press. If at the beginning of the group activity Lviv magazines cited, as a rule, were predominantly abundant in notifications, information, advertisements, articles, which can hardly be deemed reviews (and there are plenty of such professionally helpless articles!), later, under the influence of theatrical activity in Lviv the situation has dramatically changed. There appeared new genres, types, forms of theatric activity.
For example, unusual for the then Lviv citizens has become theatricalized activity of Concert Bureau – performance in the open air «Prince Monomakh conquers Cumans” under directorate of Bohdnan Pazdrii (on September 12, 1943). The spectators were the thousands of Lviv citizens. Concert Bureau also includes male choir and bandura-players chapel, the repertoire of which was predominantly comprised of Ukrainian folk songs and classics. Very interesting and underexplored is the activity of Veselyi Lviv Review theatre, Literary and Art Club where new artistic names were promoted, the values priorities were formed, the culture of polemics was brought up.
The author of the article sees the role of national scene, which, during extremely tough period in the consciousness of Ukrainians was associated with the patent to resistance and the form of ideological opposition to the occupants, in the diversity of cultural activity of Ukrainian artists of 1941-1944 who became more active under the influence of the work of Ukrainian theatre of Lviv* – Lviv Opera House.
*This is what the first historical name of the Theatre in July 1941 was., which, in August, after Lviv inclusion into occupied Governorate General, was substituted by: Lviv Opera House.
ISSUES AND TENDENCIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF DRAMA THEATRE FIGURAL LANGUAGE IN 1970s
The article considers extension of relations in a structure of stage act, renewal of aesthetic perspectives of a figurative system of a performance. It is noted that originality of creative searching of stage directors – G. Tovstonogov, A. Efros, O. Yefremov, V. Panso, Yu. Miltinis, M. Tumanishvili, F. Vasilyev and others – was enriching this process by its inimitable tints. However, searching for ways of a performance figurative systems formation combining all elements in the whole remained a common dominant, as well as searches for histrionic know-how for increasing the “sociability at the boundary of character”, when actor, ruining the final completeness of a stage role picture, was “germinating” in artistic texture of a performance. Having added the breath of life to the performance, actor simultaneously not only retained but also increased sovereignty of his creative “ego”.
It should be noted that an actor’s creative work in the system of the modern synthesis has generated the most essential problems on the way of aesthetic re-equipment of the theatre. Building-up multilayered scenic “chronotops” at a wide range of dramatic material, stage director and set designer were expected understanding from an actor that he/she is though being the most important but only the part of the scenic “world”.
Comparison of discussions appeared in magazines “Teatr” (“Theatre”) and “Ukraiinskyi teatr” (“Ukrainian Theatre”) at the beginning of 1970s provides for impression how this process was corrected by development circumstances of the national dramatic cultures. In particular, the most acute problem for the Soviet theatre concerning renewal of histrionic know-how in Ukraine became complicated by absolutely scanty range of artistic perspectives of active repertoire, musical-dramatic status of the most Ukrainian theatres and lack of leading stage directors, around whom like-minded actors could be united. Exclusion, perhaps, was searches of a new generation of artists from the M. Zankovetska Theatre headed by S.Danchenko.
Theatrical reality was always witnessing antagonisms in joint creative work of stage director – set designer – actor. Exactly on such point of view the article considers plays “Miy bidnyi Marat” (“My Poor Marat”) (Odessa Ukrainian Music-Drama Theatre, stage director I. Reikhelgauz, 1972), “Borgy nashi” (“Our Arrears”) by E. Volodarsky (Odessa Russian A.Ivanov Drama Theatre, stage director K. Cherndyayev, 1974), “Richard III” by W. Shakespeare (Lviv M. Zankovetska Theatre, stage director S. Danchenko, 1973), “Vassa Zheleznova” (first version) by M. Gorky (Donetsk Regional Theatre, stage director O. Utyeganov, 1976), and others.
Undoubtedly, many talented actors of the Ukrainian stage was showing experience in role practicing in coordinates of specified scenic “chronotop”, ability in building-up of an act dialogue with object-to-voice sphere of a play, wide range of ways for scenic role practice etc. However, fruitfulness, efficiency of such searches depended on not only individual skills of concrete performers, but also on artistic context of the artistic criteria determined main routes for updating of the theatrical synthesis.
ADAPTATION OF MASS AUDIENCE TO THEATRE CULTURE
The problem of adaptation to the mass audience of modern theater is particularly urgent, because the theater as a complex cultural institution is not being funding by the government and often supported by the enthusiasm of some individuals. Theater attendance have a very significant impact on the financial position and on the quality of theatrical production of course. Besides, theater in a more important way shapes the culture of the person, removes the tension between national ethnic groups by demonstrating the basics of national cultures and their values. This contributes to the understanding causes of the behavior, the presence of various social technologies of life which is unusual for one socium up against the other.
The theater in many ways is the determining factor in the development of the man as a subject which has a modern outlook and capable of being reflective and self-improvement person. However, modern mass culture, not only develops the man, but also affects it negatively, especially in people with low levels of ideology and unable to critically evaluate (interpret) the world.
The theater, with its centuries-old tradition has almost no destructive effects on humans and does not destroy its subjective quality; it fixes this destruction and generates real person subjectivity.
Individual, which is get used to consume products of mass communication, and stop noticing its triviality, which alienates him from his work. The ability to normal functioning of socium in the middle of high culture in the present situation is very pessimistic.
The result of the human internalization in childhood, when a child in its development process must assimilate the rules of social behavior and cultural values, is creating its own personal standards and values. During this period it is necessary to cultivate theater, music and art interests with purpose to form high level culture criteria which help to compare and to evaluate its products.
In case when parents do not attend theater with their child and the theater did not invite children to their performances, then the formation of the theatrical culture of the individual happens by chance or may not happen at all. There are many people who have never been to the theater in our society.
In the process of adaptation of the individual to society, the role of social technologies of self-development and self-improvement which are addressing to the human conscious and have influence on their way of choosing things in life and be responsible for actions increasing every day.
A person can make his life more meaningful based on creative work and values which society gives to him according to its own position.
Despite the age, each individual adaptation to the culture of society is a general condition for understanding between people of different cultures, and this is adjustment tool which can act positively on the elements of inter-ethnic misunderstanding and national hostility. Theater takes an important role in this process, which have a positive effect on the audience as a person and representative of any nationality.
INFLUENCE OF UKRAINIZATION PROCESS ON PERSONNEL POLICY IN UKRAININAN CINEMA (1920s-early 1930s)
In the 1920s, the national cinema reached its greatest development. The main factors that positively influenced the process were the new economic policy, the autonomous status of Ukrainian cinema and Ukrainization.
Indigenization policy was agreed in April 1923 XII Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), which recommended public bodies to form the national republics mainly from the local population, to issue special laws that would ensure the use of the native language in all public institutions. On the territory of the USSR indigenization policy called Ukrainianization.
At first, the process of Ukrainianization was carried out rather slow. Real changes began after the approval of April 30, 1925 resolution "On urgently measures of a full Ukrainianization of Soviet apparatus."
In 1925 the Public Offices Commission were established towards Ukrainianization. They relied on task of keeping workers of Ukrainian Studies, the implementation of active cultural work aimed at mastering the staff of the Ukrainian language.
Analyzing proficiency in Ukrainian workers of VUFKU structural units was noted that geographical factor almost had no effect on the level of language training.
An integral part of Ukrainianization of the administrative apparatus was the transition of office in Ukrainian language. This process was gradual and somewhat dependent on the location of the structural region of cinema department. In the southern region this transition has been slower. But in general, this problem was solved positively. Correspondence subordinate structures of rule VUFKU was Ukrainian.
The actual problem for Ukrainian cinema was problem of training. Leaders of film industry rather than to train their staff in the educational institutions, chose an easier way – filmmakers were invited from other republics, for the most part far from the national culture.
Therefore no coincidence process of cinematography Ukrainianization is associated with the mass arrival of Ukrainian writers - as writers, editors, and journalists. This relatively short time period became its biggest splash. Indeed, without writers, Ukrainization of cinema was just prevents from.
So processes of Ukrainization in personnel cinema politics conducted in two main areas: the involvement of Ukrainian element in administrative and creative work and teaching Ukrainian workers of VUFKU. In general, they are not much different from all about ambiguous results. Ukrainianization limiting factor was the indecision of government bodies in relation to people who ignored the applicable law, and then - massive repression.
With some caution fate could be argued that the impact of Ukrainization processes on personnel policy in the film as a whole is embedded in a linear process: the increasingly carried Ukrainization, especially Ukrainian element came to the cinema, and the growing number of cinema workers who owned the Ukrainian language.
«IT IS A WAY THE MOVIE BECOMES EXPRESSIONISM»: the german expressionism in the works of Ukrainian theorists and practitioners in 1926
The magazine "Kino" was founded in 1925 and was one of the first Ukrainian cinema magazines. It informed about world cinematographic processes and about situation in Ukrainian cinematograph. It decided economic, social, creative problems of new Ukrainian cinema.
The article is devoted to analysis of few publications from Ukrainian magazine "Kino" 1926 about expressionism in German cinema.
The authors of publications (F. Lopatynskyi, E. Dobryanskyi, G. Veller, M. Borysiv-Vladimiriv) are theorists and practitioners of Ukrainian cinema of early period of its becoming. They concentrate attention on important moments of German Expressionist poetry form and technical points of this process. This interest is not casual.
In 1920s there was very difficult economic and political situation in Ukrainian culture. The Ukrainian republic was after civil war and was in full dependency from Russian Bolshevik Government. The strong Russian influence was not only in political sphere. Ukrainian art was very dependent from Russian too.
In 1920s it was realizing national Ukrainian cinematography. In this period poetic form of Ukrainian cinematography formed and searched instruments and methods for realization. It was very important to found new form and new style. All filmmakers, screenwriters and theorists of Ukrainian cinema were in search such new forms and methods of creation. It was so important in new cultural situation to make actual films for mass viewer.
The young Ukrainian cinematograph already at 20 years XX century is feeling the influence of Russian soviet filmmaking. Russian cinematography in this period was interesting new subjects. It was searching of new style and new form about new political situation and adequate expression of it in cinematic means. New style of this period in Russian cinematography was constructivism. This style is forming in creation of famous Soviet directors S. Eisenstein, L. Kuleshov, E. Shub and other directors.
But many practitioners and theorists of Ukrainian cinema was interested in progressive processes in foreign cinematography too and wanted to study and use the best of progressive tendencies in Ukrainian cinema.
German expressionism in cinema was interesting phenomenon in world cinematograph. In this way there were many difficult methods, sophisticated searches and findings. German expressionism in cinema proposed unusual methods of work with actor, cinematic time and space. It was new ways with light and shadow, decoration and depth of frame. It all made new possibilities for new researches and experiments in cinema.
STYLE OF THE UKRAINIAN FILM PRESS OF 1930th
The submission of the system of soviet mass media general ideological-organizational scheme began in 1920s, this process of standardization continues in 1930s. The soviet press becomes the speaker of totalitarian ideology; journalism joins to the administrative command system finally. In 1930s there was vertical differentiation of printing editions by the degree of importance: particular journals are divided into central and republican. An analogical situation is observed in Ukraine: the magazines Kino (1925-1933) and Radyanske Kino (1935-1938) were the basic special editions of republican industry of the cinema.
The magazine Kino was founded in 1925. During 1920s the structure and sections of the journal were formed, an author’s collective was manned. At the end of 1920s politicizing of soviet mass media increases and the system of the single-party press becomes firmly established that results in gradual substitution of artistic criteria with political criticism. These processes in the informative sphere properly affected on subsequent development of republican professional edition – Kino.
In the second half of 1920s democratic tendencies were vacated a place the slogans of official propaganda, which begin to acquire a leading value. So the idea of reconstruction of national economy becomes central in all soviet mass media, not except professional editions. Artistic problems lose fundamental status and were vacated a place the subject of the global economic reconstruction. Heading “Paces of the country and paces of the cinema” appears in the magazine Kino. During 1930-1933 the journal publishes materials that reflect the trend of filmmaking planning in accordance with industry norms.
It is necessary to notice that at the beginning of 1930s in industry of the cinema there was not actually methodological basis; terminology that time was illogical or groundless. Therefore different sometimes contradictory definitions of one artistic phenomenon could coexist on pages of the magazine. The authors of the articles raised the question about absence of marxism-leninism criticism and general method of the soviet cinema constantly. A disturbance was caused by divergence of critical opinions too.
Reporting and reviews of statistics prevailed among the genres of journalism that was due to objective reasons. Absence of object and subject of criticism – films and professional critics – entailed to situation that time. Only at the end of 1932 – at the beginning of 1933 Kino began publishing the articles in which the elements of film imagination are analyzed in accordance with the principles of dominating ideology.
Conception and format of the magazine Radyanske Kino principally differed from the predecessor – the journal Kino. Radyanske Kino is the monthly edition with a broad coverage of questions of a cinema. Mostly a number consists of reviews on the Ukrainian films and scenarios, and main place was occupied by consideration of the films of other republics (mainly Russian production).
Author’s intonation of the Radyanske Kino was other. Critical remarks were obligatory, however they had recommendation character. However in 1937 year in Soviet Union began the systematic removal of dissidents from all spheres of the culture. The magazine Radyanske Kino did not remained aside these phenomena. Most authors of articles criticized the film Prometheus by Ivan Kavaleridze especially sharply. The director was accused in formalism.
Tradition of discussion of new scenarios, which was planned to the production, was begun with the first numbers of journal. The large fragments of scenarios necessarily were accompanied the explanations of filmmakers of own creative conception or detailed reviews. The creative portraits of directors occupy a separate place among the genres of the Radyanske Kino.
Ukrainian film criticism of 1930s becomes the constituent of the system of soviet mass media. During 1930s was formed general style of soviet film criticism, which principally differed from experience of foreign film critics.
AESTHETICS OF ABSURD AS A PART OF EXISTENTIAL CINEMA WORLD OF MICHELANGELO ANTONIONI
The article analyzes elements of aesthetics of absurd in works of outstanding film director Michelangelo Antonioni on examples of his trilogy of alienation – “The Adventure”, “The Night”, “Eclipse”, films “Red desert” and “Blowup”.
One of the leading motives in the works of Italian film director Michelangelo Antonioni is confusion of the human in face of cold indifferent world, alienation and loneliness, inability to communication.
All these motives are associated with the philosophical views of existentialism, particularly the philosophy of the absurd of Albert Camus. Notion of absurd is contrary to the logic, it breaks any sense, but Camus takes its meaning its on new shades. For Camus, the absurd is a gap between mind and world that disappoints, between the longing for wholeness and divided universe and the contradiction that uniting it. This gap leads to anxiety, despair and emptiness that we see in the images of characters in Antonioni’s films.
This paper discusses the mentioned above motives and the role of elements of absurd aesthetics in the work of Antonioni on example of films that conditionally released into alienation trilogy - "The Adventure", "The Night" and "Eclipse" and the movies "Red Desert" and "Blowup".
It is necessary to remark specially the actress who combines with her images the trilogy of alienation movies, and also performs a major role in the movie "Red Desert" – Monica Vitti. She was Antonioni muse and she was perfect embodiment of the idea of the world's absurdity anxieties. Her heroine is young, beautiful and seems to have starving for love and enjoy life, but instead she is victim of fear and alienation.
The aesthetics of absurd in Antonioni films rooted in the ideas of existential philosophy - feelings of despair, of being lost, alienation and the impossibility of communication. Absurd opens conflict between the human and world, it is the consequence of failure, inability of people to communicate and understand each other because of the total isolation and loneliness of each individual. Finally, despair and anxiety arising from communication with strange and indifferent world.
Particular attention must be paid to the urban or natural, but always empty landscapes that emphasize internal emptiness and loneliness of human in the modern world. Characters of Antonioni’s films are not in harmony with the environment – they are lost in its space.
Finally, elements of the absurd as a break of conventional logic are evident in the very structure of Antonioni films, which is a breaking of the traditions of storytelling – there is not the usual scheme of exposition – culmination – final. Instead, the films are the series of events that embody the actual movement of life that is meaningless and chaotic.
REFLECTION OF DISASTERS IN SCREEN ART
The screen art, which we consider for example a television or cinema, remains the primary means of informing the public about emergency situations in the world.
Disasters caused by natural forces or technical activities of human is a feature of the twentieth century and the cause of mass injuries among the population.
Today, there are many problems associated with industrial accidents, which are at the last time of great importance in the information space, which is the relevance of our research.
Topics on any kinds of disasters are becoming increasingly popular among the modern audience.
The screen art plays a significant role in the socio-cultural space and has a significant influence on the change of the moral condition of a modern society. Given these circumstances, television and cinema are the most mobile and efficient sources of information, which give the opportunity to learn about the tragic events and their consequences.
Exploring the works of the disaster, we try to determine the socio-aesthetic essence of the genre-making associated with the phenomena of disasters, its origin, patterns of development, the specific and the content of reflection in the on-screen art. Therefore, the aim of the proposed paper is to analyze the main issues to be displayed disasters directly television and cinema.
Disaster movies have been the subject of admiration of fans, from the time of the epics of silent films, and this interest continues to exist up to the present time. Disasters can have many different forms, but they are mostly artificial or natural. They may be such that are impending or such, which will take place in actual time; they can also exist locally or globally.
In the beginning of 20th century there were several significant real disasters, first of all, this is a great San Francisco earthquake (1906) and the death of the «Titanic» in 1911. These events actually influenced the beginning of the development of the genre of the film-catastrophe.
Exploring the subject of the Holocaust in film, we came to the conclusion that the genre of «disaster movie» is very popular among the audience, but it also has a lot of negative qualities that affect the development of the ethic-aesthetic perception of the modern world.
Regarding the appearance of disasters on television, this subject is very problematic, because under the influence of modern media occur dangerous transformation of the human consciousness.
Special attention, in our opinion, should be paid to the issues of correctness relatively light and reflection of the disasters that affect the moral-ethical and emotional condition of the society as the recipient of such information.
Study of the problems of epistemology, the typology and the theory of genre films-accidents in the on-screen art allows the author to consider more carefully the issues of the production and further representation of video products, the theme of which is disasters and emergencies.
Oleksii LIEBIEDIEV, Oleksandr PRIADKO
PLASTICITY OF CINEMATOGRAPHIC IMAGE AND ITS COMPONENTS
This article considers the concept of plasticity of the image in cinematographer's work on the film, the main components of plasticity and its influencing factors.
The subject of the article is the plasticity of the image in the cinematographer’s craft. The article considers a question of such a concept of creation of the screen image, as plasticity.
Scientific actuality of this article is that the concept of plasticity is widely used in professional film language, however it accurate explanation does not exist. In spite of the fact, that cinematographer rather often perceives plasticity as the highest criterion of the image quality on the screen; plasticity is not the term or concrete definition.
None of scientific figures, art or film critics, still has not investigated the plasticity of the image as the highest form of emphasis in the cinematographer’s work. So the purpose of this article is to find out and concretize concept of plasticity of the image, in what it consists and on what it depends.
The first part of this article is devoted to the analysis of a technical component of plasticity. Speaking about plasticity of the image, it is important to note that this phenomenon is a synthesis of cinematographer’s creativity and accurate technical parameters. There are a lot of factors influences, whether the total image will look the expressive. If the cinematographer’s vision of the movie is extremely expressive, and the technological level of a film or parameters of the digital file will be in poor quality, the total perception of the viewer will be spoiled.
The second part of the article will reveal the role of the main creative cinematographer tools which set allows estimating the image as expressive will be allocated. The shot composition, choice of an angle of camera, selection of optics and the depth of field, use of perspective and creation of a deep stage setting, camera movements in the area – all this influences perception of the final image on the screen.
Also in the article was allocated the work of the cinematographer with lighting and color in the movie. It is known that light statement is a basis of cinematographer's craft. The viewer perception of each shot depends on choice of a light key, contrast, tonality and light ratios.
Separately, the article focuses on the methods and the principles of obtaining the expressive image in modern realities of a digital cinema. Nowadays in professional film production there is a transition from film technologies to digital, and cinematographer should solve a problem of finding of new creative tools of emphasis for achievement the plasticity of the screen image.
OSCAR WILDE: REVERSE SIDE OF AESTHETICISM
Writing of this article was stimulated by the activation of interest in outstanding and tragic personality of English culture - Oscar Wilde, which in particular is associated with three powerful researches, which appeal to this person was directly - "Oscar Wilde, or Truth of Masks" by Jean de Langlad (1999), and "Oscar Wilde" by R. Ellman (2012) and indirectly - "Aestheticism" by L. Lambourne (2007). In these studies, in expanded form, or in a more concise format articulated point that has an important place in the dynamics of movement of Wilde’s aesthetics – caricature phenomenon which very quickly became an integral part of this area as a whole and always accompanied by Wilde himself.
Instead domestic scientists, whose interests are related to the phenomenon of aestheticism and derivative problems, did not actually raise this issue, impeding the development of its integrated model. The article emphasizes that directions of research of caricature aesthetics can be deployed at different levels, in particular – in the context of the approach codenamed "reverse side of aestheticism". The relevant benchmark was proposed by O. F. Losev in work "Aesthetics of the Renaissance" (the " reverse side of titanism"), which is a general methodological in nature and has significant research potential.
Caricature becomes an integral part of the aesthetic movement, because it was caused by the specificity of this phenomenon that in the article is specified by the analysis of specific examples. Moreover, it is evident desire of Wilde himself in his articles and public lectures to understand the creative potential of the caricature, which is a powerful impetus for art in general.
The article declared feasibility of reliance on the concepts and categories of aesthetics in the analysis of Wilde’s caricature aesthetics, which naturally lead scientist in the field of comedy category. All caricature creations that accompanied aesthetic movement and Wilde himself apparently were comical in nature. However, the classic comic antipode - the tragic turns powerful base in implementing admission caricature in general, argued in the analysis of the painting "Scream" by E. Munch and portrait of Wilde by A. Toulouse-Lautrec.
Understanding caricatures on aestheticism in the context of categorical apparatus of aesthetic science stimulates output in plane of ugliness, which can be considered as the final stage of the caricature as "the reverse side of aestheticism".
ARTIST AND AUDIENCE: VIEW ON RELATIONS IN MODES OF POSTMODERN SPECTACULAR CULTURE
Modern man is actually the subject of visual representation, living their lives in an atmosphere of total visualizing and feeling like a spectator and a performer. In the 1960s–1970s European and American art developed ideology and behavior strategies of creative personality – both the artist and the viewer. Special viewer who showed willingness to be involved in the sphere of body-art performances, provocations, and spontaneous actions was formed as a result of these processes. Any interactive forms of artistic practices, particularly in the artistic direction of actionism (action, happening, performance, various types of body art) arose. Actionism – a variety of forms of artistic activity, based on the principle of procedural art.
Action aimed at achieving a specific artistic goal. It comes without pre-designed scenario drama, but may have social or ideological coloration.
Happening developed not as organized, as well as triggered, improvised, unpredictable action, which involved the audience. This artistic event lacks a clear scenario and drama. None of the participants can not know in advance what will happening and when it will end, because it is the audience (they are members) determine the development happening and its ending. An idea erasing the boundaries between artist and audience is evident in the form of happening.
Performance involves planned visually spectacular show invited to the public. This form provides a more or less distinct scenario plan and comprehensive staging. The object itself becomes creative performance artist, his existence in the artistic process.
The special relationship between artist and audience formed in scenic form of postmodern art – instrumental and choral theater. This form requires a significant visual code – the bright theatricality of the performance of the process, when the behavior of musicians/singers on stage is an integral part of the full perception of musical works. An important element of this spectacular form is particularly communication with the audience: musicians, actors await the viewer not only the listening response, but also viewers.
Special communication is formed between the artist and the spectator in contemporary street art that presents the city as an open platform for spectacular gaming and creative experimentation in public space. Graffiti art, street installations, street and wall paintings and others – all of these forms are created for dialogue with passersby.
Next form – flash mob – pre-planned (mostly online) mass action in which a large group of people suddenly and unexpectedly appears to others or going to a public place performing for a short time some action, then «dissolve» very quickly. The fundamental discovery flash mob is that perfectly normal, ordinary, everyday act performed by one person, can cause considerable shock if this action will do both simultaneously «smart mob». This spectacular form presents several levels of communication between participants and spectators.
Among postmodern entertainment of screens as an example of unusual communications model, you need to call a video game. There is a complex communication system in which the player as a spectator, character, co-author, and creator talks at various levels with other players with other characters from the creators in the video game. Player in the process of immersion in a computer game starts to manage it on his own, becoming a co-author of the artistic and gaming products, and changes caused by this intervention are experiencing as a gamer, assessing the new situation, and again in directing further discretion as author – with the result that the communication process is «looped».
Summing up the consideration of the features of communication between actors entertainment forms in the culture of postmodernism emphasize that the relationship between artist and audience award democratic, greater or lesser degree of interaction (emotional, physical, creative and gaming), and blurring the boundaries between artist and recipient – spatial, temporal, subject-subject, personal and professional.
OLEKSANDR ZAHAROV IN STATE DRAMA THEATRE (KYIV, 1918-1919): ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS
The article examines unknown page of Oleksandr Zaharov’s biography – his work in the State Drama Theater in Kyiv, Ukraine (1918-1919).
Article is the attempt to comprehend, analyze and systematize Oleksandr Zaharov’s carrier of chief director of State Drama Theater in the context of history, creative work and activity of early Ukrainian state theatres – The Ukrainian National Theatre and State Drama Theater – in the period of 1917–1919, whose titles for a long period of time was withdrawn from the art and scientific use. The main attention is given to the examination of such aspects: researching of historical, political and art context as well as circumstances of appearance of the first Ukrainian state theatres; determination of aesthetic basis and administrative principles of its function; analysis of its creative stuff, repertoire and staging.
This article is based on Ukrainian archival documents which were inaccessible to the scholarly community in the preceding decades. Based on vast historical material, the following facts have been elucidated. The Ukrainian National Theatre was the first state theatre in Ukraine. It was founded in September, 1917 in response to a public initiative expressed by the Ukrainian National Theatre Committee in the atmosphere of euphoric national enthusiasm. The theatre was at once announced a state institution by Ukrainian Central Rada. The following year (in the period of the Hetmanate) its tradition was carried on by two other state theatres: the State People's Theatre and the State Dramatic Theatre. The former focused on the everyday life repertoire first and foremost. It was called upon to meet the artistic needs of the public at large. The latter, in its turn, referred to as "the European repertoire" theatre, was predominantly meant for the intellectuals. Following the nationalization of both theatres in 1919 and a number of artificial renaming initiated by the Bolshevik authorities they received the names current up till now, namely M. Zankovetska Lviv State Ukrainian Academic Drama Theatre and T. Shevchenko Dnipropetrovsk Ukrainian Music and Drama Theatre respectively.
Besides, there is given the complete repertoire of the Ukrainian National Theatre. And so, this investigation, filling up one of the “gaps” in the history of national culture, may be useful when writing the really new history of Ukrainian art.
IN STAGNATION OF HISTORY. OLEKSANDR ZAHAROV AT THE HEAD OF SHEVCHENKO THEATRE 1919-1921
The article is dedicated to the Kyiv period of professional career of leading Russian and Ukrainian director Oleksandr Zaharov, his plays staged at the Shevchenko Theatre during 1919–1921 and his managerial activities as a head of that theatre.
In charge of the Shevchenko Theatre as its chief director since 1919, Oleksandr Zaharov conducts his repertoire policy by predominantly re-working shows created by predecessor teams that had operated in the theatre. Thus, having inherited two scenic incarnations of Moliere’s classic Tartuffe – from the Ukrainian National Theatre led by director Hryhorii Gaevskyi and from the Young Theatre led by director Valerii Vasiliev – Zaharov builds a new version of the play from a creative integration of the earlier-made productions.
In early 1920, Oleksandr Zaharov begins working on new, original incarnations, of ‘Revizor’ (Inspector General) by Mykola Hohol in particular, which went into the theatre’s history thanks to Les Kurbas, who was playing the role of Khlestakov. In later days, their artistic cooperation continued in the staging of Shevchenko’s poem Haidamaky, which saw Kurbas directing the show and Zaharov performing one of the leading roles.
As the article moves on, the author outlines two key factors that defined the nature of Zaharov’s creative work when he was in charge of the Shevchenko Theatre. First, it is the exit from the theatre of considerably large group of actors led by director Les Kurbas. Second, it is the ambition of Zaharov himself to create his own shows that would have a nation-wide relevance and meet modern aesthetic standards and political demands of the time.
In the author’s opinion, that was why in the spring of 1921, the year of the 50-year anniversary of Lesia Ukrainka, there appeared at the Shevchenko Theatre a show that Oleksandr Zaharov built on the basis of her four poems: The Babylon Captivity, On the Ruins, In the Field of Blood and In the House of Labour, In the Country of Non-Freedom.Â However, the show became the major theatrical event not so much thanks to Zaharov’s direction or performance by the cast but, rather, thanks to a stage-design solution by Anatol Petryvskyi. Thus, Petryvskyi’s sketches that have survived and lived to our age are attesting to the artist’s use of certain methods of the revolutionary poster-like avant-garde fine arts. That way, he was merging the protest mood of the poems with the revolutionary spirit of the epoch, as a well as referring, through separate details and coloring, to the ancient times. Such decoration suggests that Zaharov’s staging of Lesia Ukrainka’s poems in the design of Anatol Petryvskyi corresponded to both the stylistics and innovation-modernist type of theatricals. Under the same angle the author analyses another staging work of Zaharov from this period – Lesia Ukrainka’s The Stone Host.
A separate attention is given to a special position Zaharov held in Kiev artistic circles as well as to his attempts to follow, at the time of active aesthetic innovations and changes, the established scenic traditions. Specifically, the author examines previously unknown reviews by futuristic poet Mikhail Semenko, which were sharply critical of the shows staged by Zaharov in the Shevchenko Theatre.
OLEKSANDR ZAHAROV IN UKRAINIAN NATIONAL THEATRE OF “UKRAIINSKA BESIDA” COMPANY (1921-1923). REALISM-PSYCHOLOGISM-SYMBOLISM
In 1921 O. Zaharov emigrated from the USSR in Galicia, where he became the artistic theater director of “Ukrainska besidа” company in Lviv. On the opening director offered three program performances ("Sin " by V. Vynnychenko, "Mirandolina" by C. Goldoni, and “Ghosts” by H. Ibsen), which outlined the director's focus on scenic realism.
However, the primary cognitive success of Zaharov’s performances in Lviv Theatre was further moderate. So O. Zaharov was saturated to the demands of territorial repertory theater policy and the actual dilemma of repertoire updating.
The director turned to symbolist drama, which had the experience of working out since the cooperation of Russia with V. Meyerhold that in provincial situation need new and unusual pieces developed the symbolist drama.
The first unsuccessful attempt becomes never worked before by director naturalistic, social and psychological characteristics of symbolist A. Strindberg drama “Father”.
Drama “Momotov Nir” of Ye. Karpenko was the basis for the eloquent review "Drama impotence". The basis of the tragedy was overloaded with pretentious symbolism idea of patriotism against the backdrop of the accumulated plot and imaginative series. The director gave a realistic tragedy. Among the triad defining images he chose only a single propeller action Momot Nir for treatment, which he used in unacceptable manner of psychological game. Accordingly, in a consistent and realistic manner made the whole cast. A tragic role of integrating rod ideas Portrait image has been reduced to props – the subject – pictures.
Next staged drama "Feast of the New Year" of S. Levynski was also dissimilar. The director did not work the mediocre of drama dramatic, and therefore performance has not left any critical experiences.
Also do not become successful premier of modernist syncretic drama of T. Rittner "In the small cottage". Directed by Oleksandr Zaharov not adopted and not grasped the problems of the conceptual drama where was not the author's assessment and classification of the characters and their psychology appears only against the background of standards of Galician bourgeois environment. Therefore, the review was merely recorded, even without the main character performers.
The final statement of symbolist O. Zaharov was the study “Sin” of D. Przybyszewska. Therefore, setting small dramatic forms relied on acting performance. In contrast to all the actors playing the good critique allocated M. Morska as fatal Hadasa, image commensurate with the outlook actress.
"Zaharov’s" modernist drama productions only saw the premiere. Of course, that was quite an eclectic repertoire, but also are featured and highly artistic designs such as dramas of A. Strindberg and T. Rittner. Perhaps director O. Zaharov had remained blunt realist to the end and professed primary "historical-home line" of the MAAT. It is no coincidence in short biography of Oleksandr Zaharov sporadic mentions his cooperation with Meyerhold, where he could borrow a rough aesthetics and style symbolist, conventional theater. Then in Lviv symbolist productions of O. Zaharov shortage directing processing and their dominant relied on actor’s arbitrary interpretation.
OLEKSANDR ZAHAROV – DIRECTOR AND ARTISTIC LEADER OF RUTHENIAN THEATRE OF “PROSVITA” COMPANY IN UZHHOROD (1923 - 1925)
One of the Transcarpathian cultural life national acquisitions in 1920s-1930s, when Transcarpathia was the part of Czechoslovakian Republic and was called Pidkarpatska Rus, was the creation of professional Ukrainian theatre “Ruthenian theatre of “Prosvita” community”. The theatre was solemnly opened on January 15, 1921 with presentation of “Oh, Hryts, don`t go to vechornytsi” (vechornytsi – evening party) play by M. Starytskyi.
M. Bilychenko, N. Pryiemska-Dnistrova, B. Krzhyvetskyi accomplished the play staging in Ruthenian theatre from January to August 1921.
In August 1921 Mykola Sadovskyi was invited to lead the theatre “Prosvita”. During 1921-1923 he managed to form the professional company, to assimilate with it the theatre coryphaeus staging realism esthetics, to determine the music and drama direction as the primary one, to make advances in European modernism aesthetics realizing.
Oleksandr Zaharov, the art leader of Ruthenian theatre (1923-1925), continued to make Transcarpathian theatre the European one with the help of his own concept that included the technics of actor play school and the captious repertoire choice.
O. Zaharov presented himself in Uzhhgorod by Ukrainian modern dramaturgy staging. Those were the neorealist plays of V. Vynnychenko (“Sin”, ”Mis Mara”, ”Lie”, “Among two powers”, ”Law”); western-European classical dramaturgy (“Mirandolina” by Goldoni,”Tartiuf” by J.-B. Moliere, new psychological drama “Hedda Habler” by H. Ibsen, ”Henshel, the cabman” by T. Hauptman, ”Father” by J. Strindberg); the Russian dramatists plays translations (“Wolves and Sheep” by O. Ostrovskyi, ”Tsarevitch Olexyi” by P. Merzhykovskyi, ”Gold book” by O. Tolstoi, V. Smetana’s “Sold dride” opera, J. Shtraus’ ”Gipsy baron”, V. Kollo’s “Baron Kimmel”, E. Kalman’s “Chardash queen” operettas.
O. Zaharov managed to consolidate in Ruthenian theatre the conceptually complete repertoire policy which consisted in coexistence drama opera and operetta world staging on the basis of European modernism principles. That fact promoted the raising of theatre creative staff specialists level, the theatre critics in Transcarpathia and regional spectator aesthetic culture.
Beginning with the 1924 the local authorities were headed by Russophile A. Beskid. On that period the anti-Ukrainian forces with Prague support tried at first to rusify the Ruthenian Theatre and then to destroy it politically by the way of gradual cutdown of state finance subsidies. Such conditions were the main reason of O. Zaharov’s leaving in June, 1925. Having lost the experienced theatre leader, the Ruthenian theatre suffered the creative and financial crisis.
The second half of twentieth last century is characterized by negative attack of Czechoslovakian government on Ukrainian culture development in Transcarpathia. These events were the same as on the rest of Ukrainian territories that found themselves under the rule of foreign countries.
OLEKSANDR ZAHAROV AND MARIIA ZANKOVETSKA STATE THEATRE (1926)
The activity of Russian-born director, actor and educator Oleksandr Zaharov (Fessinh) in the Ukrainian theater of the twentieth century might be divided into three stages: 1) in Kiev (1918-1921), 2) abroad (Lviv, Uzhgorod and Prague, 1921-1926) and 3) after returning to Ukraine (1926-1928). The author considers the reasons of Zaharov’s return to Ukraine, the activities of the Zankovetska Theatre in Yekaterynoslav in the seasons of 1925-1926 and conditions that led to Zaharov’s invitation as actor and director, and his latter appointment as artistic manager. The Zaharov’s productions of 1926 have been analyzed, and the exact dates of their premieres (incorrectly given in the monographs on the history of Zankovetska’s Theatre) are established. Based on archival materials the author reveals the motifs of the conflict between actors and management of the Zankovetska Theatre and the reasons of Zaharov’s escape to the Shevchenko’s Theatre at the end of December in 1926.
"The so-called "Ukrainization" i.e., in the broadest sense, striving to the development of an independent Ukrainian culture, - according to Yuri Shevelov - was formally proclaimedÂ on the Seventh Congress of the Ukrainian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) in April 1923, and began to be actively implemented since 1925 after the April plenum of the Party’s Central Committee". This caused many prominent Ukrainian scientists and artists, who had escaped abroad after Bolsheviks rise into power in 1919 – 1920, start to return home. Zagarov came back to Ukraine on May 13, 1926 to take charge as artistic director of the Zankovetska Theater in Kharkiv (in those days the capital city of Ukraine).
People who worked with Zaharov in the Zankovetska Theater remained very different opinions about him. Basil Yaremenko was rather crytical: "We all in the theatre had high expectation that Zaharov would lift our professional standards as a company, but in the process we found out that after what he had given to us in the early post-revolutionary years he was not able to give something more”. It may be true since after his return from abroad Zaharov failed to embrace the changes taking place in the state and the impact of political struggle on the art of the theater. Nevertheless Zaharov was skilled professional director who could masterly engage the actor’s personality to reveal the image of the role. This Zaharov’s ability was highly praised by his contemporaries. Here is an extract from the memoirs of actor and director Domian Kozachkovsky: "Zaharov was one of those directors who genuinely loved the Ukrainian theater and helped a lot its directors and actors to explore in-depth the Russian classical theater heritage, and to develop serious attitude towards the inner sense of the spoken word and to obtain a deeper knowledge of the language in which the directors and actors are trying to represent their art on stage".
The article deconstructs established by earlier scholars myth about happy working conditions for Zaharov in Soviet Ukraine after his return from abroad. Based on the memories of actors and directors who worked with Zaharov in 1926 the author outlines the artist’s method and his contribution into the development of the Ukrainian acting culture at the first quarter of the twentieth century.
O. ZAHAROV AS ARTISTIC LEADER OF KHARKIV STATE THEATRE (1927-1928)
This article explores the Kharkiv period of creative activity of O.L. Zaharov (1927-1928), when he led the Kharkiv State Theatre as artistic director. We consider the dramatic prehistory of the company that was created on the basis of the State National Theater. Author analyzes the features of director’s policy, according to the newly created company. This policy caused by increasing of ideological pressure and by stiff artistic life regulation. Also there were analyzed such performances staged by O. Zaharov as “Republic on wheels” Y. Mamontov, “Purga” D. Scheglov, “Lucrecia Borgia” V Hugo, “Rogue Karmelyuk” L. Starytska-Chernyakhivska “An Underground Galicia” M. Irchan .
The article emphasizes certain O. Zaharov’s incompatibility as an artist (V. Nemyrovych –Danchenko’s student, that brought up on the basis of MAT (The Moscow Art Theatre school), with those requirements, that were posed to the State Drama Theater. The authorities saw the main task of this theatre in working audience maintenance and in promotion of communist ideas.
At the same time, relying on a large amount of archival documents and periodical materials there were specified the facts of artist’s life and work, the list of performances that were set by them, the timing of their release and their perception by Kharkiv criticism. Specifically O. Zaharov was most criticized for his “academicism”, for inability to exacerbate performance or specific image socially. He was required more revolutionary class approach to the interpretation of classical pieces, more social emphasis. These requirements indicated the conjuncture and ideological thinking of contemporary criticism.
The author stresses that over time the dissatisfaction of O.Zaharov’s work growing more from the government, theater critics and even the theater employees. O. Zaharov was accused in opacity of theater repertory policy and in consequence of that it can not be considered revolutionary; it has not its own artistic credo. Y. Shevchenko saw the main cause of unsuccessful season in the fact that theater actually did not have the artistic director.
The author of the article thoughts, that there were several reasons for O. Zaharov’s failure in Kharkiv. First of all, the political situation in the country drastically changed. The ideological pressure strengthened, the limiting of artistic life did not promoted for the creation of highly artistic, theatrical works. On the other hand, emigration and isolation from the artistic and political realities of the Soviet Union had an effect on Zaharov, as an artist and a man. Feeling his uselessness and danger of political persecution through emigration, A. Zaharov once and forever left Kharkiv and returned to Russia in May 1928.
With the new theater season, the theater was reorganized, updated the creative composition, artistic and administrative leadership. The theatre was renamed from the “Kharkiv State Theater” to “State Chervonozavodskiy Theater”.
MATHERIALS ABOUT OLEKSANDR ZAHAROV IN COLLECTIONS OF MUSEUM OF THEATRE, MUSIC AND CINEMA ART OF UKRAINE
From different circumstances in Museum of theatre, music and cinema art of Ukraine there is not valuable archive of Oleksandr Leonidovich Zaharov, but there is plenty of materials, from which scientists can investigate creative activity of artist.
Plenty of playbills were saved, after which it is possible to trace history of him stage-director raising in different theatres.
In 1918 Oleksandr Zaharov was invited in Kyiv for forming of new theatre that will go down in history under the name State Ukrainian legitimate drama (today the Dnepropetrovsk academic Ukrainian Shevchenko musically-dramatic theatre). After playbills that is kept in Museum it is possible to trace that in the activity new theatre was predisposed to realistically-psychological school; the repertoire of psychological and poetic direction, play of foreign and Ukrainian playwrights was taken in basis.
Much attention in this theatre was spared to work of Lesia Ukrainka. Oleksandr Zaharov opens a theatre on February, 28, 1918 by a play the "Forest song"(director B. Krzhyvetskyi) in the apartment of former theatre of Gaiman. (There was a theatre on the street of Merynhivskyi, presently it is a street of М. Zankovetska, but a house was not saved). Farther in 1919 О. Zaharov puts the "Babylonian captivity" and "On ruins"; in June, 1920 is the "Fire-place owner" and in October - "At the house of work, in the country of captivity" and "On the field of blood". In June, 1921 (in raising of О. Zaharov and N. Tinskyi) on the stage of theatre "Advocate Martian" and "Orgy" appear yet. Thus, during three theatrical seasons a theatre carried out eight presentations after the plays of Lesia Ukrainka. A record until now is not surpassed.
In the funds of Museum playbills are kept: in 1918 presentations "Driver Henschel" Hauptmann (director О.Zaharov; painter Myhaylov), in 1919 presentations the "Babylonian captivity", "On Ruins" of Lesia Ukrainka (director О.Zaharov, painter А. Petrytskyi).
In 1921-1925 О. Zaharov moves in Galychina that then was under Polish power. He works as the leader of the Lviv theatre "Ruska besida", and afterwards – the Uzhhorod theatre of society "Prosvita".
In autumn 1922 О. Zaharov together with N. Voronyi organizes at a Lysenko Higher Institute in Lviv dramatic school and becomes its leading teacher. In Galychina stage-director put the cycle of plays of V. Vinnychenko, including "Sin", "Law", "Lie", "Inspector" of Golden-eye went along with great success, where О. Zaharov played Governor.
Exactly about this period of stay of artist on Galychina in the theatres of Lviv and Uzhhorod there is most collection of different objects in the funds of Museum.
This is also playbills of presentations the stage-director of that was Oleksandr Leonidovich: in 1921 "In native family" of Zuderman, "Ghosts" of Ibsen; in 1922 "Sin" of V. Vinnychenko, "Youth" of Galba, "Marriage" of N. Gogol, "Tartuffe" of J-B Moliere.
This is also letters of period 1921 — 1939: to Maksym Lebeda (in 1925), from Dmytro Antonovich (in 1939), from Petro Soroka (in 1921), from Danylo Shcherbina (in 1927).
It is also congratulatory addresses to the 25 year of creative activity of artist. It addresses of Zaharov "In the day of celebration anniversary of quarter of century of artistic activity" in Lviv. On December 21, 1922. Signature "Ukrainian Regional-student advice". Congratulatory Card of the Student union is in Stanislav. Congratulatory visiting-card from Society of the Ukrainian teacher in Lviv the "Mutual aid".
All these objects specify on the circle of common ubication of artist.
And a very interesting exhibit is a notebook-album of artist. On the 59 pages of this notebook tipped-in undercuts are from the Galychina newspapers dated the first half of 1920s. It is also the Lviv newspaper "Forward", "Public announcer", and Polish newspapers. From these undercuts it is possible to find much information and reviews in relation to raising of theatres of Lviv and Uzhhorod under the direction of Oleksandr Zaharov. On the last pages of notebook is manuscript of artist.
Also in the funds of Museum there is a playbill of presentations (by Czech) of Ukrainian academic legitimate drama in Pobyedrah (Czechoslovakia), the leader of which in 1925 was О. Zaharov.
On the program of presentation "Republic is on the wheels" of I. Mammoth (season 1927 — 1928), it is possible to trace, that Zaharov in this period was a stage-director and leader of Kharkiv Chervonozavodsky state Ukrainian legitimate drama.
The playbills of Kharkiv Chervonozavodsky state Ukrainian legitimate drama of this period (today it is Dnepropetrovsk State Т. Shevchenko Ukrainian legitimate drama) were saved: "Inspector" N. Gogol (1924-25 director О. Zaharov, painter N. Nevidomskyi), "Marriage" of N. Gogol (1926-27 director О. Zaharov). And there is also playbill of presentation "Fuss" of J. Karpenko-Karyi (in 1926 director О.Zaharov), in that composition of troupe of theatre is indicated 1927-28.
Farther Oleksandr Zaharov works as an actor and stage-director in the theatres of Penza, Vladivostok, Khabarovsk and Kovrov.
In the funds of Museum the manuscript of the article is kept to the newspaper "Of Krasnoyarsk Worker" (given out on October, 13 in 1935), in what Zaharov tells about opening and repertoire of new theatre in Krasnoyarsk under his guidance.
The manuscript of Autobiography of artist Zaharov is kept in the Museum archive of stage-director, what dated an author on July (07), 7 in 1938 resort of "Sosnovka".
And in Kovrov the Ivanovo area celebration of 40 year of a stage activity of artist took place in 1939. With a momentous date welcomed many friends, colleagues, supporters. Here and in Museum theatrical, musical and cinema to graphic arts plenty enough of congratulatory telegrams (about 17) is kept, in particular from the Kyiv regional department of arts, from the collective of theatre of the name of Maria Zankovetska , from Pavlo Ticino.
The program of anniversary theatrical is also kept in Museum "Yegor Bulychov" N. Horkyi, where a person, whose anniversary be celebrated, came forward as a stage-director and carried out the leading role of Bulychov.
In the program it is possible to see to the photo of Zaharov. This presentation took place in Legitimate drama in city of Kovrov on April, 5, 1939 where was Oleksandr.
It is needed to note separately about photos that kept in the funds of Museum.
Photo of 1920s, Kyiv is Oleksandr Zaharov among the graduating students of the Kyiv musically-dramatic institute of the name of N. Lysenko. A photo has donative inscription of К. Blue. It should be noted that exactly this year Oleksandr Leonidovich was selected as the professor of this institute.
There is photo that was done in Uzhhorod – А. Zaharov among theatrical collective. After research of photographing it could be carried out in the period of 1923-25, when a stage-director headed artistic guidance of the Uzhhorod Ukrainian theatre "In lightening".
Two photos are also kept, on which O. Zaharov represented in a role of John, Ukrainian peasant in the German film "the Gold wolf" (in 1924 "Karpatfilm "). After research of premier of ribbon took place on July, 24, 1924 in Prague (Czechoslovakia), in a film told about life of village of Carpathians.
Thus, an archive of Oleksandr Zaharov that is kept in the funds of museum is not large, but various, that gives an opportunity to the scientists to investigate his life and work.
By means of funds of museum plenty of scientific publications were written. To fund materials apply at writing of diploma and other advanced studies.
CINEMA EXPERIMENT WORKSHOPS (CEW) AS A FORM OF ENGAGING YOUTH IN CINEMA
The article reconstructed one of not popular experiments of soviet cinema pedagogics of the twentieth century – the Cinema Experimental Workshop of Society of Friends of the Soviet Cinema, which was the effective method of bringing proletarian young people to the cinema.
History of Ukrainian cinema education was studied by G. Zhurov, A. Zhukova, О. Shimon, V. Slobodyan, О. Мoussienko, V. Skurativskiy, L. Goseyko, S. Trymbach, V. Marochkо, R. Roslayk and other, however by virtue of different circumstances, first of all, closing of part of the archived funds in soviet time and party censorship, much cinema pedagogical experiments of the twentieth-thirtieth years of the twentieth century remained not investigated.
Cinema Experimental Workshop in Kyiv was organized at the end of 1926 year. As reported in the main magazine of the Ukrainian cinematography «Kino», for the year of the existence workshop organized cinema seminar at M. Lysenko Musically-Dramatic Institute, arranged a few experimental labors and surveys.
Now this workshop prepares to raise the short film «Sleep of ordinary man».
In a workshop actively worked the students of the Kyiv Artistic Institute, M. Lysenko Musically-Dramatic Institute and members of Society of Friends of the Soviet Cinema.
Activities of workshop were managed by professor Pidgareckyi, Zatvornickyi, Semenovich and Ezerskyi.
In a magazine a shot was contained from an episode «Search», which the students of Cinema Experimental Workshop worked on.
One of theatrical stage-directors, which decided to capture the art of screen, was the ex-student of Vsevolod Meyerkhold and Les Kurbas – Glib Zatvorickyi, which in the second half of the twentieth worked in Kyiv as screen writer and was the stage-director of the Cinema Experimental Workshop.
Even the students of higher forms of Artistically-Industrial School became the members of Society of Friends of the Soviet Cinema and, probably, participated in work of Cinema Experimental Workshop.
During three months March-April-May in 1927 94 lectures were read on the Encyclopedia of the Cinema, Engineering of the Cinema, Technique of the Cinema and other cinematographic disciplines. During summer vacations it was planned to bring part of students over to shooting of Oleksandr Dovzhenko «Zvenihora».
1928 the students of Cinema Experimental Workshop under the direction of Glib Zatvornickyi made short length movies «Knave of spades» and «Study to swim», in 1929 – short length film «Dayosh».
Talented young people was a result of work of Cinema Experimental Workshop, Society of Friends of the Soviet Cinema and various creative competitions found and helped to act to Odesa State College of Cinematography, Kyiv Artistic Institute, and after organization in 1930 of the Kyiv State Institute of Cinematography, to this cinema institute.
SPECIFICITY OF ART OF RECORDING ARTISTIC READING IN THE CONTEXT OF SOUND IMAGE CREATION
The culture of speech in radio ether testifies to development of personality, about the degree of attaching of it to the spiritual wealth’s of native people acquisitions of all humanity which experiences the process of world globalization today. A revival of nation through claim of Ukrainian in all spheres of vital functions must be a process democratic, in which the special hopes depend upon young people, student, highly skilled workers of education, culture, and arts which find out not only professional trade from a stage language, but also impeccably own it. On the modern stage of improvements which take place in cultural and art space, the question of creation of high-quality voice appearance of that or other broadcasting appears especially sharply.
Both the colloquial are heard in different after a genre radio program and stage languages. For an example, in a took-show use a mainly natural language, and in artistic – stage. Such qualities of a stage language are important in the informative programs, as legibility, cleanness of diction, correct articulation (as remembered higher). Therefore during preparation of announcers and anchor-women for ether much attention spared employment after a stage language, exercises for a linguistic vehicle on breathing. The systematic training is the unique possibility to be delivered from wrong formed linguistic stereotypes that enables to fasten a correct pronunciation, which will become in subsequent «foundation» for professional work on radio.
Every announcer always aims those or another way to act on a conscience, conduct of listeners. He tries them or to convince, or surprise et cetera. Thus attained results can be included in intentions of announcer or anchorman, and possibly, and not to enter, to arise up not forcedly. Trade of appearance of radio consists in that intentions coincided with the attained results. For providing of the proper speech and reduction of time on a text revision before appearance in ether it is necessary to own skills of oratorical art. Basic settings of oratorical language – to interest a listener, operate on an audience, retain the personal interest to the utterance. And that is why a speaker must own trade of persuasion, use a language in quality the mean of communication, to own professional capabilities.
One of the leading roles in the system of linguistic utterances plays dynamic tints. Scientists a long ago compare expressive facilities of language and music. Most models this germination arises up in the use of such dynamic tints, as piano, forte, crescendo, diminuendo et cetera. They do a language more expressive, emotionally «painted» out. This factor is important for activation of attention of listener. Such mean of expressiveness, as a melody, characteristic only for music, it is although possible to talk about «melodic of language». It is closely with understanding intonation. The presence of intonation variety of language which is heard is thus understood. It is known that a monotonous language is badly perceived a listener, and it considerably reduces the personal interest to the program on the whole.
Time will come, when ether gradually will go back to veritable spiritual values, when from broadcastings will be thrown out «voice garbage», because all sound before to get to the listener, will get through «ears and hands» of sound producer, namely on his profession and cultural and art taste all responsibility lies down for the cleanness of ether space of our state.
ACADEMIC BULLETIN OF KYIV NATIONAL KARPENKO-KARYI UNIVERSITY OF THEARE, CINEMA AND TELEVISION
Halyna Botunova Creative activities of O. L. Sukhodolsky in context of the late 19th – the first two decades of 20th centuries
Victor Humeniuk The leading actors of the theatre in Zhytomyr after the war
Valerii Fialko Renovation of Ukrainian theater scenic vocabulary in 1960s – the first half of 1970s (part 2)
Yaroslav Hrushetskyi Ukrainian puppet theatre of “various means of expression” – origin, strengthening, development
Larysa Kadyrova International theatre’s festival of womens monodrames «Mariya»
Liudmyla Kovalchuk Basic stages of materialization and presentation of theatre costume
Oksana Mousienko Reminiscence of decadence in cinema of 1910s
Artem Pasichnyk Common production films of Odessa and Yalta VUFKU film factories
Roman Rosliak Preconditions and reorganization of the system of film directors training (middle-second half of 1930s)
Olha Pashkova Style attributes of the Ukrainian educational cinema in period of war 1941–1945
Maryna Ponomarenko Specificity of short films dramaturgy
SCIENS OF CHOREOLOGY
Oleksandr Manshylin Rudolf Laban’s choreology
Oleksandr Plakhotnyuk Jazz dance in context of development of modern choreographic art of Ukraine
SCIENS OF CULTURE
Olena Onishchenko Aesthetic potential of physiological sense: theoretical analysis and artistic interpretation
Larysa Ilchuk Patography as researc method
Nataliia Mousienko City as theatre (to problem statement)
Oksana Mousienko Kavaleridze – avant-gardist
Oleksandr Bezruchko Director’s laboratory (the brigade) of Ivan Kavaleridze: unknown pages of history
Anastasiia Pashchenko Museum collection as a source of analysis of film directors work (on materials about works of I. Kavaleridze from funds of the Museum of Theatre, Music and Cinema Arts of Ukraine)
Lukian Halkin Ivan Kavaleridze: artist and power
Leonid Baraban Something about Ivan Ravaleridze – dramatistic
Tetiana Silchenko Some problems of adaptation of professional skills are in practical activity of external students-students «Acting puppet theatre»
Hryhorii Maksymenko Actuality of trainings in preparation of actor
D R A M A T I C A R T
CREATIVE ACTIVITIES OF O. L. SUHODOLSKYI IN CONTEXT OF THE LATE 19th – THE FIRST TWO DECADES OF 20th CENTURIES
The article deals with the work of O. Suhodolskyi – famous figure of the Ukrainian theatre that during the artist’s life obtained fairly contradictory evaluation and still not properly investigated.
On the wide original source material – archives, press, memoirs, with involvement of scientific research, the actor, director and entrepreneur work of O. Suhodolskyi is analyzed in the context of social and political processes of the late 19th – early decades of the 20th century. Simultaneously specified many of facts of the life and work of the artist, traced his emergence as an actor under the influence of outstanding figures of Russian scene, including M.Ivanov-Kozelskyi and the first Ukrainian companies of G. Ashkarenko and M. Kropyvnytskyi, his participation in the activity of G. Derkach’s company (in 1893-1894) and in common with O. Suslov (in 1894-1898), where he has already held a leading position.
The greatest attention is paid on activity of company during the sole guidance of O. Suhodolskyi (in 1898-1918). The author analyzes company’s repertory, it’s touring routes, direction, performing skills. It is noted that since 1901 the company often was in Kharkiv and in fact settle down here. With L. Sabinin’s company, separated in 1908 from the O. Suhodolskyi’s company, they do the same mission in Kharkiv, that the M. Sadovskyi’s company does in Kiev.
Consideration of O.Suhodolskyi’s company stage practices is carried out in the context of social and political realities of the time – harassment, making life hard, censorship restriction, lack of funding and any support for companies from Ukrainian government, all this caused the movable nature of their work and tough competition. Special attention is paid to the discussion of these questions that erupted in 1907 in the first pages of the newspaper "Rada" and then in St. Petersburg’s magazine "Theater and Art", in which O. Suhodolskyi also took part and expressed their own fundamental position.
Materials, that reveal the latest, the most dramatic period of O. Suhodolskyi’s life and work, associated with the events of the February Revolution in 1917, changing the name of the company, the ownership, organizational and administrative principles have been introduced into scientific circulation first. We found that the company had been transformed into an autonomous Society under the directing of O. Suhodolskyi first, and from January 23, 1918 into the Ukrainian National Theater of Council of working, soldierly and rural deputies, in the past O. Sukhodolskyi.
Drawing on the archival materials, the article also highlights the obscure pages of Suhodolskyi’s staying and creative work in emigration and his return in 1929 to Russia.
Analyzing O. Suhodolskyi’s life and career, author concludes, that despite all the shortcomings, that occurred in the work of the artist and his company – overloading the repertoire with low-level art plays, attraction to excessive stage effects and melodrama – still he was one of the most prominent figures in the theatrical process of Ukraine in late 19th – early decades of the 20th century. As versatile gifted man – actor, director, entrepreneur and playwright, he made a considerable contribution to the national theatre art.
Activity of O. Suhodolskyi’s company as the other similar companies is an integral part of the theatrical process in Ukraine of that period, profound and impartial investigation of their work will form a more coherent and, most importantly, objective picture of the national theatrical art.
LEADING THEATRE ACTORS IN ZHYTOMYR AFTER WAR
The history of nowadays Ivan Kotcherga Zhytomyr Theatre has begun since the 8th of January 1944 after the liberation of the city from fascist invaders when the performance “Natalka Poltavka” was staged for the first time in the city that had just become free. The authors indicate that Zhytomyr was liberated on 31st of December 1943. But later the city suffered the retreat of the Soviet army which had to fall back nearly to Kyiv. Then there was a new offensive on a wide front and a new liberation. The premiere dates back to the 8th of January. Everyone understands that this performance was staged earlier and it was in the repertory of the theatre during the occupation. A part of pre-war theatre artists had been evacuated when the German fascist invaded the city. Another part headed by P. Klepachenko who had performed the role of M. Shchors in the play by Dold – Myhailyk (this actor became the director of the theatre) stayed there and continued working in Zhytomyr. Some actors who had worked at the mobile amateur theatre joined the troupe. So, the 8th of January is considered to be the date of birth of the new period in history of theatre which had already existed before. “Natalka Poltavka” was followed by “Nazar Stodolia”, “Sorochynskiy Yarmarok”, “Marussia Boguslavka”, “Tsyganka Aza“, “Zaporozhets za Dunaiem”, “Beztalanna”.
Petro Prokopovych Boyko was a wide-range actor and person of a great inward strength. Since 1939 till the end of his life (December 1968) the artist had been working in Zhytomyr. He created a great variety of bright roles. Another prominent person in the theatrical history of the city was Vasyl Agaphonovych Luppa. He was very impressive and intelligent man of a high stage culture. Romantic tenderness and a deep sensation of human soul are naturally combined in his acting. A deep perspicacity, high energy and a special emotional flexibility were inherent to Volodymyr Grygorovych Sohatskyi who had been working in Zhytomyr till May 1949. The actor displayed a great fullness in drama and created a variety of comedian characters (before the war he had played the part of Ostap in the play “Ustym Karmaliuk” by Suhodolskyi, Robinson in “Bezprydannitsa” by O. Ostrovskyi, Redka – “V Stepah Ukrainy” by O. Korniychuk at Zhytomyr Shchors Theatre).
Since the middle 1940s such actors as Olexandr Antonovych Svintsytskyi, Myhailo Pavlovych Horosh, Marko Olexiyovych Tereshchenko has become the leading actors of the theatre. All these artists are the men of a great dramatic talent and significant culture. They are many-sided personalities who wouldn’t like to limit themselves to only theatrical parts. The young actor Volodymyr Nesterenko said that they were stout and handsome like three epic heroes. O. Svintsytskyi was an actor of unique emotional talent, besides he was a man of touching heartiness and warm lyricism.
Though M. Horosh had some success in comedian performances, he preferred heroic roles. His dramatic talent was marked with such distinguishing features as severe restraint and recollection.
M. Tereshchenko was first of all the master of expressive outer pattern of the role. Sometimes he seemed to be a little dryish, too rationalistic. But he was really careful in performing his characters, he paid attention to the tiniest traits of his heroes. It was a justified way to reach natural but original emotional persuasion.
Romantic enthusiasm and real psychological persuasiveness are remarkable traits of Valentyna Ivanivna Storogenko, who created the memorable characters on the stage of Zhytomyr Theatre (she had been working there with a short interval till 1954).
In 1948 another talented artist came to Zhytomyr Theatre. Sergiy Gordiiovych Karpenko had been a famous master of Ukrainian stage by that time. He was a great master in creation of really colorful stage characters. His scenic images were sublimated, sincere and gentle sometimes with a sharp feeling of unexpected difficulties of human nature.
Kleopatra Vasylivna Tymoshenko became the actress of Zhytomyr Theatre at the end of 1946. One of her first roles during Zhytomyr period was Katerina in the play “Groza” by O. Ostrovsky. This part testified an attractive strength of unusual stage talent of this actress. K. Tymoshenko was exceptionally plastic and versatile. She could create different characters and show various human emotions.
A lot of unforgettable actors had been performing at the stage of Zhytomyr Theatre for the post-war period. Their traditions were of great vitality. They have been developing successfully in this creative company since that time.
RENOVATION OF UKRAINIAN THEATRE STAGE VOCABULARY IN 1960s – THE FIRST HALF OF 1970s (Part Two)
The article deals with evolution of the stage language of the Ukrainian Drama Theatre from symbolic-illustrative lexicon of the beginning of 1960s to figuratively-metaphorical, genre-style semifunctionality of performances of the first half of 1970s.
In panoramic view of pioneering figuratively-plastic conceptions of this period special place belongs to the play “Na Dni” (“The Lower Depths”) by M.Gorkii (Kyiv Lesia Ukrainka Theatre, 1963). Creative cooperation of the stage director L.Varpakhovskyi and set designer D.Borovskyi had arisen at Kyiv period; involvement of the latter to formation of stage impersonation had appreciably influenced the strengthening of the main line of renewal for the European theatre aesthetics.
Supremacy of a certain ideological and aesthetic stage implementation canon of heroic-romantic performance becomes obvious when considering stage directions of M. Stelmakh’s plays “Zacharovanyi vitriak” (“Spellbound Windmill”), “Duma pro tebe” (“Ballad About You”) etc. Illustrative in its form, didactic in a point of fact, myth creative in ideological in purpose, the stage lexicon of the aforesaid performances is beyond the context of modern aesthetic practices.
Tracing back the formation of a new nature of interaction between stage direction and set design during creation of a performance figurative system, author accentuates attention on search of unique generalized stage environment, use of natural texture and genuine object-speech world of a play, mastering of up-to-date expressing opportunities of a light, kinetics, etc.
Giving up the stage likelihood, representation of life in “forms of life itself”, performance coauthors were striving for bringing of drama conflict into the sphere of concept of high-degree generalization confirmed by considered plays of Kyiv Ivan Franko Theatre “Koly mertvi ozhivaiut” (“When Dead Are Revived”) by I.Rachadi (stage director O. Barsegyan, set designer D. Lider, 1968); “Virnist” (“Faithfulness”) by M. Zarudnyi (stage director V. Lizogub, designer D. Lider, 1970); “Varshavskyi nabat” (“The Warsaw Tocsin”) by V. Korostylyov (Kyiv Youth Theatre, stage director V. Sudyin, designer M. Frenkel, 1967); “Rozgrom” (“Defeat”) by O. Fadeyev (Kyiv Lesia Ukrainka Theatre, stage director M. Reznikvych, designer L. Alshits, 1970 and Chernibtsi O. Kobylyanska Theatre, stage director V. Opanasenko, designer Lassan, 1975); created in tandem of stage director S. Danchenko with set designer M. Kypriyan – “Maklena Grasa” by M.Kulish and “Kaminnyi hospodar” (“The Stone Master”) by Lesia Ukrainka (Lviv M.Zankovetska Theatre, 1966, 1971).
Working at the territory of scenic convention stage directors and set designers were striving for at most expanding of scope of understandable to the stage, representing in a play realms of the time and levels of the world cognition which were not consolidated in words of a playwright.
UKRAINIAN PUPPET THEATRE OF “VARIOUS MEANS OF EXPRESSION” – ORIGIN, STRENGTHENING, DEVELOPMENT
This study focuses on a bright period in the history of Ukrainian puppet theatre. It was during the studied period to replace an established tradition of realistic art with puppet fundamentally different expressive forms.
The drastic changes in the aesthetics of the European puppet theatre began in the 1950s. Expressive means of the traditional puppet theatre, namely imitation – the deliberate creation of a stage illusion of reality to copy protection actions and behavior of the characters changed metaphors, openness, conscious destruction of a stage illusion, desire for conventional, theatrical techniques. These techniques bring to the ancient art of puppetry new, modern meanings.
These trends are relevant and popular in Ukraine by the middle of 1970s. However, the directors could not go directly from the prevailing manners before work on a professional puppet play. The Ukrainian puppet theater of last quarter of the twentieth century entered in the era of systematic search for new forms of expression. This period of experimentation can be divided into several stages.
The most "harmless" and compromise for a realistic understanding of the creative stage in the puppet theater (obtained from a previous era of fairly strong inertia) form of coexistence of the actor on the stage and the puppets were accepted as a "logical addition of "live" actor of the world of puppets". The defining quality of this procedure was the "iron" realistic justification appears next to the traditional puppet character – actor.
Fundamentally different qualities possessed a method of "open animation", when on the stage next to the puppet does not appear character actor, but the actor is puppet’s animator. That is the process of "revival" of his puppeteer puppets became visible. This technique allows you to build more complex stage relationship between the actor and his character, to make the epic elements, used in the overall game of scenic components a powerful factor of acting personalization.
Finally, the "turning into circulation" means of expression (in addition to the visible actor and traditional puppets) the elements of the "theater of neighboring territories", namely, the theater of masks, theater and growth of shadow puppets, mime and other puppet of Ukraine came close to creating performances in aesthetics of "the third genre". This genre was not already, in fact, no legendary puppet theater or drama or any other known type of theater in its purest form. However, the prerequisite for the effectiveness of such direction performances remained artistic expressive communication of all used components. This, indeed, was the director of the construction of the original image-sign systems within the boundary of the play.
The search in the direction of "the third genre" in Ukraine died down somewhat by the middle of 1980s, replaced understandable "yearning" of professional puppet theater on the puppet, which is considerably lost its position, behind the "living" actor.
POLYLOGUE OF CULTURES
Festival "Mariia" is based by international charity organization "International Theatre Institute" (Ukrainian Center), Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Ukraine, National Academic Ivan Franko Drama Theatre, with assistance of Museum of Mariia Zankovetska, Department of Museum of theatre, music and cinema of Ukraine, charitable organization "Shevchenko Fund -21st century", Ukrainian Shevchenko company "Prosvita".
Festival "Mariia" is held annually in the second half of September - beginning of October in Kiev since 2004.
As part of the festival there is held the press conference for the media, international science and art conference, round table "polylogue of cultures", art exhibitions, workshops, professional meetings.
The festival takes place in the realm of the National Ivan Franko Drama Theatre. We invite on the Chamber Stage of the theatre carefully selected performances from different countries: Poland, Russia, Armenia, Japan, USA, Egypt, Belarus, Norway, Germany, Australia, Italy, Hungary... and, of course, Ukraine. All actresses and guests are present for all festival dates, watching performances of colleagues, or listening to literary and theater critic, feeling themselves not on tour, but an organic part of live festival infrastructure: viewing performances, debates, round table, visiting museums, tours, master classes, professional meetings...
Each year the festival celebrates important dates of Ukrainian or global culture. VI Festival "Mariia" was devoted to Gogol. VII festival was dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the birth of Anton Chekhov.
As an actress, I opened each of festival performances: G. Garcia Marquez “Dowry of Love”, Z. Hshanovskyi, L. Kadyrova “Sarah Bernhardt”, A. Kazanchyan “To be...”, T. Ruzhevych "Old woman hatches". By creating a series of performances about actresses, I dreamed to reveal the synthesis of erotic and spiritual power without renouncing feminine essence not assume any attempt on their spiritual freedom. And so Ukrainian audience saw Irene Jung (Poland), Yuni Dar (Norway), Iolanta Zutovych (Germany), Sonia Antinori (Italy), Barbara Dzekan (Poland) Natalia Zayakina (Russia), Natalia Polovynka (Ukraine), Mariia Zakharevych, Diaghileva Galina (Belarus), I. Yushkevich (Australia), Elizhbeta Royek (Poland), Nozomi Satomi Kawamoto (Japan), Nina Repetovska (Poland), Armine Matsakyan (Armenia), Lydia Konstantinova, Irina Evdokimova (Russia), Zsuzsanna Makaus (Hungary)...
Festival "Mariia" demonstrates ethics of dialogue between authorities and theater: funding and non-interference in the creative process.
I want say to all the creative people, "Forgive and hello! Let's meet energetically, spiritually, intellectually, even though we are creating on opposite sides of the Earth the newest, modern, true, but reforming mind visions of world human perception".
S C R E E N A R T S
MAIN STAGES OF MATERIALIZATION AND PRESENTATION OF THEATRE COSTUME
The analysis of major stages of creation of a theatrical costume proves that the design should be considered as a quintessence of its artistic solution. A costume design is a broad phenomenon emerging as a result of cooperation of an artist, a director and an actor. A final visual effect of a performance largely depends on the quality and originality of an artistic presentation of the design. A drawing with depiction of scenic garments carries quite complicated technical tasks to be subsequently resolved in the course of production of the costume in material.
A number of theatrical workshops are involved in production of a theatrical costume, considering that different production materials and fabrics refine and develop the idea of a theatrical costume first depicted in the drawing. The results of these actions largely depend on the theater’s material resources, experience of production workshops, consistent approach to the process and cooperation of a costume designer with production workshops. At this important stage of production of a theatrical costume an artist is a carrier of its general visual idea and must coordinate workshops so that this idea is implemented at the stage as precisely as possible, including in terms of style, scale, color selection and tonality. In this process, the design is a bridge connecting the ideas of a creative group with a production process.
Production of a theatrical costume should be in line with a rehearsal period. It is important that the material part of the performance, including a scenic costume, is prepared and incorporated in the stage in due course so that it does not impede a rehearsal period. Another important stage is when a theatrical costume accrues new colors. This is due to selection of light to performance by a director and an artist, i.e. a lighting plot. Depending on the light used – colored or white, contrasting or not, its power and trajectory, - a costume reveals its own new aesthetic features and possibilities and renders its author the required sculpture and weight.
This stage is followed by the actor’s accommodation to the costume, which implies the actor’s interaction with the costume directly on stage. Here one should note that a theatrical costume must be comfortable, match the actor, reveal and stress those features of its scenic character that make it an integral part of the general visual image of the performance. Actors always have their favorite roles and costumes. Well-made functional costumes are carefully kept for long years and are treated with a particular care. A costume as an image and a symbol incorporates the reflection of life realities translated into the language of arts, due to which it becomes a real masterpiece.
One should once again stress that a scenic costume is an important step for the actor in the course of his work with the role. By helping the actor to implement the role, offering a particular scenic grace and enriching the character, a theatrical costume helps to fill the theatrical action with a true dramatic effect and emotionality and adds to its spirituality.
Therefore, by distinguishing stages in creation of a theatrical costume, we can see that the work of a costume designer involves a number of different ideas of an artist in presentation of a scenic image and presents a common concept of a future scenic work.
REMINISCENCE OF DECADENCE IN CINEMA OF 1910s
At the turn of 19th and 20th centuries, the art of modernism steps into a period of decadence. In Russian culture, this period is known as “Silver age”. The literature of that period has been saturated with the motives of discouragement, decline and attenuation.
The decadence motives were actively used by the cinema. Melodramas became one of the époque’s most important genres. Films’ plots were often quite primitive and feeble. What helped the film to obtain more quality was an actor’s individuality.
Love story and woman’s sufferings usually made the basis of the majority of melodramatic films. It had some logics underneath. Women of that era passed through much more important changes than men.
Asta Nielsen was an actress, who exposed a character and fate of that period’s woman on the screen. The Danish actress was amongst the first ones to understand the specifics of the cinema acting. Her characters were the ones, which dominated the modernist literature. Asta Nielsen has created her own mask, which would then be used by any future star. A particular role in her image was given to a costume. She used its main details from one film to another.
Asta Nielsen has often been compared to a famous Italian actress Eleonora Duse, while another Italian “Diva” Lida Borelli has been often referred to as an “Italian Asta Nielsen”. Borelli’s acting was characterized by an elegant stylization. Her moves and gestures were exact and verified. Borelli has embodied on the screen a female type, created by the fantasy of a decadent author Gabriele D’Annunzio.
A queen of the Russian pre-Revolution screen, Vera Holodna (Vera Levchenko), was winning the hearts of the spectators by a simple appearance on the screen. She was gifted with an extremely expressive plasticity. Her movements were gracious and seducing.
Such female types have disappeared after the revolution together with the époque of decadence, which they have reflected.
COMMON PRODUCTION FILMS OF ODESSA AND YALTA VUFKU FILM FACTORIES
Analyzing in modern conditions Ukrainian cinematography achievements of 1920s, it seems to be important to mention some pictures of this period, which were made in co-production by Odessa and Yalta VUFKU film-factories. Among them, special attention should be paid primarily to following films: "Not caught – not a thief" ("The presidential candidate") (1923), "Landowner" ("Tyrant") (1923), "Master of the black rocks" (1923), "Otaman Khmil’" ("Khmil’", "Story of one family") (1923), "Locksmith and chancellor" ("Chancellor and locksmith") (1923), "Ostap Bandura" (1924), "Oktiabrina" (1924).
In works of I. Kornienko, O. Shimon, H. Ostrovskyi, A. Malinovskyi, L. Hosejko and other authors, as well as in filmographies of some bibliographic sources, these films indicates as such, which were made on Odessa and Yalta film-factories.
However, as literary and periodical materials 1923 – 1924 shows, that isn’t completely right, cause:
"Not caught - not a thief" ("The presidential candidate") between April and May 1923 was producing on the base of Yalta film-factory, while in July (the current year) was finishing on a film-factory in Odessa featuring popular artists and film director’s from Yalta. Afterwards we can say that the movie is really the result of co-production of Yalta and Odessa film-factories VUFKU.
"Landowner" ("Tyrant"). In late February – early March 1923 the picture was in production of Yalta film-factory, while in July 1923 the shooting of it was transferring to quickly repaired Odessa film-factory. Finally proving the fact that picture is co-work of Yalta and Odessa film-factories VUFKU.
"Master of the black rocks" actually was made in Yalta. However, it’s also possible that some parts of this film were made on Odessa film-factory.
"Otaman Khmil’" ("Khmil’", "Story of one family") was being started by production in March 1923 in Odessa, but between May – June 1923 was transferring to Yalta film-factory, where was eventually finished by production.
"Locksmith and chancellor" ("Chancellor and locksmith") in March 1922 was produced in Moscow by one of the private film-firm. However, due to illness of the director – V[ladimir] R. Hardin, further works on movie making had to be postponed. From October 1922 the director was invited to work on VUFKU film-factory in Yalta, where during April – May, 1923, was making a picture with the same name. As for any other works held on the base of Odessa film-factory, there is no available information
"Ostap Bandura". During September – October, 1923 preparatory works of the film were held in Odessa, while at the time of immediate filming (October – December, 1923) were elapsing entirely on VUFKU production bases in Odessa and Kyiv.
"Oktiabrina" – a short feature film which was made at the end of 1924 by director G. Tasin (1895 – 1956) on Yalta film-factory, whereupon was included in the first issue of the newsreel "Flywheel" (Flywheel1), together with others short films ("Hands off from China!", "Spotted heifer"), which seen the screens in late 1924 – early 1925.
So according to the named films, to the list of those which were made in co-production by Odessa and Yalta film-factories VUFKU should be attributed: "Not caught – not a thief" ("The presidential candidate"), "Landowner" ("Tyrant") and "Otaman Khmil’" ("Khmil’", "Story of one family"), whereas "Ostap Bandura" – is a film of co-production of Odessa film-factory and Kyiv film studio of VUFKU.
In turn, such pictures as "Locksmith and chancellor" ("Chancellor and locksmith"), "Master of the black rocks" and "Oktiabrina" should be considered as purely works of Yalta film-factory.
PRECONDITIONS AND REORGANIZATION OF THE SYSTEM OF FILM DIRECTORS TRAINING (MIDDLE-SECOND HALF OF 1930s)
The purpose of publishing is how to analyze the prerequisites and the process of reorganizing the director of education in Ukraine.
In 1930, in the field of training for the Soviet film underwent major changes. It was created Kyiv State Institute of Cinematography in Ukraine.
Kyiv Film Institute functioned with faculties: Arts, which included screenwriting, directing, cinematography and acting departments, and technical (cinema technique, photochemical departments).
In 1934 began the reorganization of higher cinema education, which resulted in the introduction of new approaches to creative personnel training.
In Kiev Film Institute in 1934 were closed directing, screenwriting and acting department, and in 1933 - photochemical faculty.
To prepare directors and actors in Ukraine was changed the shape of their training.
In June 1935 the press has information about getting started directing workshop in Kiev film fabric under the direction of Alexander Dovzhenko. Students were framing paintings under Dovzhenko. In 1936, students mastered screenwriting business.
Eliminate directing workshop held in 1937, although the Dovzhenko against this object.
Directing workshop contribution in a cinema was small. Some of its graduates have returned to the theater, while others went to the cinema, but due to various circumstances could not reach there more or less considerable success. The most famous disciple was P. Vershyhora - tomorrow outstanding military leader, and writer.
In Dovzhenko director’s studio in Ukraine was tried to create higher film directing courses. Higher film directing courses had to act at the Kiev Film Institute. However, due to various reasons they were not organized.
Thus, analyzing the process of training for Ukrainian film directors in the second half of 1930s, we note that changing forms of education took place in the process of reorganizing all nonprofit Soviet Union. The Russian Film essence of these changes was to institute a system transition from education to the academic. In Ukraine it was the transition to studio education system.
In Ukraine operated educational structure was headed by Dovzhenko. However, a number of negative factors failed to realize its full potential. Thus, the effects of reorganization of cinema education for Ukraine thus were negative. All art history (writers, cameramen, actors) was deleted. Instead, the studio system did not replace it.
STYLE ATTRIBUTES OF THE UKRAINIAN EDUCATIONAL CINEMA IN PERIOD OF WAR 1941-1945
Kyiv studio of technical films was founded the day before war – in 1940. About 30 instructional and educational films were produced in the first year of its existence despite the organizational complications. By beginning of war a creative collective of studio was manned, a production process was adjusted. However the swift approaching of troops of Wehrmacht to Kyiv stipulated the necessity of immediate evacuation. On August, 14, 1941 Committee of the Cinematograph was given out by an order about the move of film studio to Tashkent.
The substantial change of thematic priorities took place in the war-time. The necessities of war-time influenced on character of state order: filmmakers were directed on creation of films for military preparation. From the first day of fighting all republican studios began to release educational and instructional films for an army and a civil population. During the war in the Soviet Union were produced more than 500 films on various questions of art of war and military technique for general military education in schools and parts of the Soviet armed forces and training of the population too.
At the beginning of the war filmmakers made a series of films for the civilian population, which demonstrated simple instructions how to conduct in certain military situation. Elementary facilities of air defense, prophylactic measures and elements of fire-prevention defense show in these films.
Filmmakers returned to the practice of the previous decade – creating thematic educational courses – in 1942. Conception of courses included the analyses of tactical and operative decisions actual for the new terms of conduct in battle operations. The technical parameters of weapon, the basic principles of warfare and the examples of front experience were given in educational pictures. Films were shown in military schools, parts, courses of military training.
The film In sands of Middle Asia («У пісках Середньої Азії», 1942) occupied a separate place among the products of Kyiv studio of technical films that is conditioned by its subject of natural science and orientation on a mass audience. Filming took place in the Kara-Kum desert. The director of film O. Zguridy used the method of supervision. In the difficult climatic terms of the desert the directors of photograph succeeded to fix the unique shots of conduct of insects and reptiles.
Educational films of 1941 – 1945 are characterized by two main features: prevailing of military subject and technically instructional by style of exposition of didactics material. Military subject is dominating due to historical conditions in which film was produced. A new stage in the Ukrainian educational cinema starts from the end of 1944 – filmmakers begin production of scientific pictures to a wider audience.
It is possible to establish, that at once after war the first stage of development of Ukrainian educational cinema (1929 – 1945) was completed, and new – forming of “Kyiv School” – began.
SPECIFICITY OF SHORT FILMS DRAMATURGY
The short films are very important for modern Ukrainian cinematography because Ukrainian shorts were successful in international festival competitions of last years. Besides in 2010-2012 it was the first time for independent Ukraine when the shorts of young authors were formed in several series and distributed as full length movies. That's why the theme of short film dramaturgy is essential for modern Ukrainian cinematography.
Short films are considered to be the area for experiments with cinematography forms and dramaturgy. But in spite of this most of modern short films are based on narration and it's very important for authors to know and abide by the rules of dramaturgy.
The plot is one of the main features of dramatic work. The classical plot has three acts but when the movie's length is only few minutes the plot could have only premise and resolution. The plot of short movie usually has one or two storylines. The dramatic, unexpected but logical end is very important for short movie plot. Modern shorts often have so-called 'false end' when the final shoots of the movie tell about some action that is unrelated to the plot. The short “Cross” by Marina Vroda can be the example of a movie with 'false end'.
We usually have only one main character in a short film. There could be two or more main characters when they act as one person, when they have similar motivation and goals, for example two boys from “The Tragic Love to Unfaithful Nyuska” by Taras Tkachenko. The main character must be bright and arouse sympathy and it has to develop in the movie. Often we can see short movies that only show some interesting or unexpected sides of main character. But for such plot construction the author should invent very interesting or contradictory person.
Some inanimate thing could be a successful main character for a short movie as against for the full-length film. But such main character should be surrounded by “alive” supporting characters and their reactions.
The scriptwriter should not use many supporting characters in a short plot. But when it is necessary to have several supporting characters they have to be very simple and clear as there is no time to tell complicated stories about side heroes.
Usually there is only one conflict in a short film. We can show external or inner conflict in a short film but the external conflict could give more action so it is more interesting for cinemagoers. The author should know everything about the conflict he describes but the film should contain only one aspect of this conflict.
The details are very important part of a short movie as the good detail could tell many information about the character and his intentions, motivation or its previous life. So, good details let the author save screen time.
Short film is often considered as the way to the full-length movie. It is possible only if this full-length film would be the series of short films. In this case there must be a common theme, some common motives or one main character for all short movies of one series.
S C I E N S O F C H O R E O L O G Y
RUDOLF LABAN’S CHOREOLOGY
The term Choreology, which means a components of the set of subjects that studies a dance, entered in lexicon of Ukrainian Art Criticism just some years ago. Though, Dr. O. Chepalov remarks in one of his articles: “Definition of Choreology isn’t scientifically established nor in culturological studies neither in professional daily use of choreographers and dancers”. In this article Choreology is considered in certain historical context, as proposed by one of founders of this discipline Rudolf Laban.
Deconstruction and analysis of movements of human body for searching new means of expression is one of the central trends of development of theatre during 20th century. Some examples are Meyerhold Biomechanics, O. Schlemmer’s work with Figurines, Decroux The Grammar of pantomime. Laban Choreology is an example of using analytical methods in dance theatre.
Separate parts of Laban’s system were elaborated during all his life. His students and collaborators continued a work. For the art of dance of our time Laban’s achievements are interesting mostly in two aspects:
1. Practical. Laban methods of choreographic education are based on intention to grasp a movement by analyzing its components. During 1960s -1970s this approach became one of the main while developing new techniques, used now in contemporary dance theatre. Also, some elements of Laban methodology are integrated into the curriculum of some Acting schools in Western Europe.
2. Theoretical. Using Laban-analysis and Kinetogaphy, choreography could be viewed as a symbolic language. This tool is used in studying of historical and ethnic dance forms and also in analysis of styles of choreography.
Laban methodology consists of separate parts:
1. A subject, which studies “the harmonic content of spatial forms and the manner in which they materialize in movement”. Laban called it Choreutics or Space Harmony.
2. A subject, which studies dynamic qualities of movement, Eukinetics. Subsequently Eukinetics became a component of Effort theory.
3. A system of movement and dance notation, Kinetography, which uses special signs for denoting body parts, directions and qualities of movements.
“Gesture and posture do not lie, — Laban wrote, — while words could and did”. He put forward the grammar of the art of movement, based on harmonizing principles, on the balance of opposites. “Gathering is balanced naturally by scattering, strong by weak, wide by narrow. Curved and straight, action and reaction, fight and co-operation, off-balance and on-balance, asymmetry and symmetry— all balance each other. This balancing propensity is innate to the body, mind and spirit, and is what makes sense of bodily movement. Nonsense movement does not conform to the grammar. Without awareness of this grammar, exercises are without meaning to the mover, and do not integrate mind, body and soul, or person with person”.
Studying in Ukraine Laban Choreology basics, in dance context and wider, in the art of theatre, opens new ways in theatre practice and developing new methods of theoretical exploring of the dance.
JAZZ DANCE IN CONTEXT OF DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN CHOREOGRAPHIC ART OF UKRAINE
There are many schools of jazz-dance, followers of jazz-dance among the performers, directors, researchers, choreographers working in the directions of: tep-dance, classical jazz-dance, show-jazz-dance, folk-jazz-dance, street jazz-dance.
The problem of jazz-dance development as contemporary choreographic art was investigated in particular by: V. Konen, N. Sheremetievskaia, V. Nikitin, D. Sharikov.
Valentina Konen in her work reveals the issues devoted to the formation of jazz as a musical-expressive system, aesthetics, processes of occurrence types and genres. The researcher also analyzes other component of jazz art – dance, in particular she considers formation of jazz-dance in the context of the history of jazz art. The researcher notes the high level of training and skills not only of the musician virtuoso of jazz improvisation, but also of dancers.
Natalia Sheremetievskaia in studies of contemporary pop art, such as: «Dance on stage» (1985), «Journey in rhythm of step» (1996), analyzes and scientifically proves stages of pop dance development – since its origin in the late 19th century to the late 20th century. Submitted tep-dance history from the time of its occurrence in America, in the middle of the 19th century and also describes periods of development and its decline in the Soviet Union.
Vadim Nikitin in his works considers question of history development, technical principles of jazz-dance and methods of modern jazz-dance teaching.
Among the Ukrainian researchers of jazz-dance and contemporary choreography art, we should mention Denis Sharikov. He explores the question of choreographic art in general, its history of development and theoretical basis of its formation, practical application of dance, methodology of its study and performance, integration with other sciences.
Jazz dance is primarily implementation of dancer emotions rather than the form or idea as it is in modern dance.
Today we can confidently say that jazz-dance has roots of African-American dance, of the minstrel show, of the European dance (Irish gigue, Spanish spateardo, Russian "dribushky").
We can propose some classification of jazz-dance:
- Classic jazz-dance;
- Contemporary jazz-dance;
- Broadway jazz;
- Street jazz-dance.
Contemporary jazz-dance is a general term for a popular jazz-dance of the first decade of twenty-first century, as a continuation of development tendencies of modern jazz-dance and jazz-dance.
Therefore, with its wide fields of variety, jazz dance takes one of the most important places in the modern choreography art. Understanding and knowledge of jazz-dance helps more deeply, meaningfully analyze choreographic works in all their manifestations and detections.
S C I E N S O F C U L T U R E
AESTHETIC POTENTIAL OF PHYSIOLOGICAL SENSE: THEORETICAL ANALYSIS AND ARTISTIC INTERPRETATION
Theoretical and methodological orientations of non-classical aesthetics that since the second half of the nineteenth century form its conceptual field, led to the new format of aesthetic issues and fundamental transformation in the field of classical problems. This is particularly refers to aesthetic sense, the analysis of which in non-classical day undergoes demonstrative changes.
The apparent breakthrough that happens in this field is connected with achievements of positivism aesthetic and, above all, with researches of its British representatives – H. Spenser, O. Bain and H. Allen. Their attention to the problem of aesthetic sense brings out the demonstration sections in conceptual orientations of scholars, consider the specifics of the author's approach to the study of this phenomenon, and finally talk about the development of his original model in the context of aesthetics of English positivism. It gains primarily related to work of H. Spenser "Justification of psychology", research of H. Allen "Physiological Aesthetics" and research "Feeling and Freedom" of O. Bain, which comprehended the ways of aestheticization of all human senses, but emphasis have been made on the so-called physiological senses: taste and smell.
The analysis of relevant theoretical concepts actualized consideration of the experience of its artistic interpretation in the novels "Guilt of Abbot Mouret", "Nana", "The womb of Paris" of cycle "Ruhon - Makars" by E. Zola, G. de Maupassant short story "Bertha", which transformed the sense of smell and taste in plane of aesthetic and ethical principles.
The article emphasizes that the amplitude of the respective artistic quests was quite extensive in the time dimension and space of art varieties: O. Wilde dramatic experiments with his play "Salome", novel of P. Suskind "Perfumer", movie "Scent of woman" (directed by D. Risi) and its remake (directed by M. Brest), a novel M. Barbery "Goodies" and the animated film "Ratatouille" (directed by B. Bird).
Special attention is paid to the concept of O. Bain on aesthetic potential of touch and stressed that it was on this sense has built its world-famous experiment of "humanizing" of blind-deaf-mute O. Keller American teacher A. Sallivan that took artistic interpretation in the film of director A. Penn "The one who created the miracle".
So artistic experiments with physiological feelings that led to the emergence of vibrant works of art are stimulate scientists to relevant thoughts and therefore the dialogue between practitioners and theorists of art in relation to the aesthetic sense is still can not lose its relevance.
PATOGRAPHY AS RESEARC METHOD
Of all the issues on which analysts have emphasized - a concept we refer to the widest extent possible, regardless of the particular orientation of a scientist - in the context of the study of the problem of art patografy issues were considered the most interested and attracted the attention of even those theorists who ambiguous treated psychoanalytic methodology. In modified form patografy or its elements present in the works of Ukrainian aesthetics and psychologists now examine the life and work of specific personalities (L. Levchuk, N. Zborovska, A. Onishchenko, M. Dremlyuga).
In the context of the definitions, should first of all distinguish the figure of Jean - Paul Sartre, who made Flaubert patografy based on how "pure" Freud bases and brought in patografic experience some author accents. One could argue that in the second half of the twentieth century patografy acquires the features of a specific research administration.
Today, those who study the legacy of Sartre, "tie" him to the processes in the "classical" psychoanalysis, which were due to the activity of Ludwig Binswanger (1881 - 1966) - the famous Swiss psychiatrist, psychologist lifelong studied philosophy and sought ways of rapprochement with psychology.
The first difficulty is related to the analysis Sartre model of Flaubert and Baudelaire patografy - these patografies should be considered together, since they are based on the opposite of "female/male"-determined that examines the very real personality, creating a work of art. At the same time, the art and literary works of art in Sartre's concept is not true. The consequence of this paradox is a situation where a real person creates a work that we perceive, but which does not exist outside the process of perception. This, of course, an artificial construct is kind of an add on of the corner of Sartre’s thesis, according to which "the work of art is irrational."
Largely Sartre still echoes Freud in particular, made him small in volume Goethe patografy. The essence of this patografy detail presented in the L. A. Levchuk "Psychoanalysis: history, theory, art practice". We only recall its common position, because it is difficult to estimate the pose "for" and "against" Sartre patografy.
As we know, Freud extremely highly of the contribution of J. Goethe (1749 - 1832) to world culture, calling it "the pinnacle of cultural pantheon." At the same time, Freud considered as psychological mystery the fact that before the death of this eminent German poet, scholar, diplomat, social activist destroyed almost all his archives. At this time, Goethe remained autobiographical book "Poetry and Truth", on which the poet worked during 1811 - 1832 biennium in the grounds of several episodes of the book and built Freud patografy, which was published in 1917.
In addition to Flaubert and Baudelaire psychiatrists focus on Freud period drew famous Austrian writer Franz Kafka (1883 - 1924). Note that the life and work of Kafka repeatedly caught the eye of psychoanalysts, especially after 1925, when, after his death, published his novel "Process."
By definition of Erich Fromm, the novel "Process" can be understood only in the case if we take it as a dream - "a long complicated dream in which external events that occur in space and time, express thoughts and feelings of a man who sees the dream in this case - the hero Josef K.".
Based on the Fromm position, full Kafka patografy D. Sharpe did, as we have already noted, in the book "Unseen crows (and conflict transformation in the life of Kafka)", published in 1960. Although D. Sharpe finds himself psychoanalyst new orientation and not all shared the idea of "classical" psychoanalysis, developing Kafka patohrafy, it is, in our opinion, still echoes Freud.
In-depth study of incentives artist patografy which creates a researcher finally actively influence the further development of a certain type of art in the context of our analysis is literature. This phenomenon drew attention of O. Onishchenko, analyzing the influence of the works of Kafka, not only in content and form, but also to the symbolism of the literary work "Kafka on the beach", authored by prominent Japanese postmodernist Haruki Murakami.
CITY AS THEATRE to problem statement
What is a city? Is it scenery on the stage of our lives or performer starring in it? The article is focused on interdisciplinary studies of the city as theater, and approaches to the mentioned issue of different scientists: philosophers, urbanists, historians and sociologists. In partuculary:
- Perception of the city as theater by W. Benjamin, J. Lotman, S. Turoma.
- Scenography of urban architecture. Palaces, houses, yards, stairs are correlated with theatrical scene, scenery, backstage, and props by W. Benjamin, J. Lotman, S. Turoma.
- Everyday behavior of citizens in the streets. The actions of citizens are seen as theatrical performance and most citizens and as participants and as spectators by W. Benjamin, A. Lacis.
- The perception of the city as a theatrical mask by G. Simmel.
- Extrapolation of spectacle categories to all social models of urban life by G. Debord
- Perception of media spectacle in city for analizing of political situation by D. Kellner
- Wellknown urban objects become legendary heroes in the urban scene and the importance of preserving their cultural heritage by M. Certeau
- Accent on the city details, the artist of everyday life that transform city into magic theatre by M. Certeau.
Variety of methodologies for exploring the city caused by the pluralism of urban life, the inability to consider all its social, cultural, economic, urbanistic aspects through only one approach. This is pointed out by contemporary scholars, in particullary by A. Amin and N. Thrift. The approach to a city as to a theatre makes possible to analyze the life of the modern city of diversity components.
A R T P E D A G O G I C S
KAVALERIDZE – AVANT-GARDIST
Ivan Kavaleridze is an important figure amongst the representatives of the Ukrainian avant-garde. Kavalerdize has produced his first film “Zlyva” (Cloudburst), inspired by the Taras Shevchenko’s poem “Gaydamaky”, at the Odesa Cinema Factory in 1929. At this time, he has already been a well-know sculptor, author of the Taras Shevchenko’s, Princess Olha’s, Hryhoriy Skovoroda’s and other monuments. Still, he was not a novice in the cinema. Before the World War I. Kavaleridze worked as an illustrator for the firm Timan and Reingardt.
In his first film “Zlyva”, Kavaleridze makes an emprise to combine cinema with sculpture. The peasants with their sunburn faces seemed to be cast in bronze. Catherine the Great and her courtiers looked like the marble statues. Kavaleridze also used lighting as an important expressive instrument. A special lighting of the velvet curtains created an impression of the endless steps. Cameraman O. Kalyuzhnyi has fully used the lighting effects. “Zlyva” received a high appraisal from the home and foreign critics but was not so successful among the public.
In his next film “Perekop” (1930) Kavaleridze is no longer using an accentuated conditionality of “Zlyva”. However, he still orients himself at the laconism and a maximal concentration of the material. The director keeps using the light to show the collision of two worlds – old and new ones.
In “Shturmovi nochi” (1931) Kavaleridze was admiring the construction of Dniproges. One could feel there an influence of constructivism, aesthetization of the powerful mechanisms. Film has been criticized for not showing Party’s leading role, and it was not allowed for screening.
In his next work “Koliiivshchyna” (1934) Kavaleridze returns to the events, reproduced in Shevchenko’s “Gaidamaky”. Party forced the director to rework the film’s scenario 17 times. Finally, Honta and Zalizniak were shown as Ukrainian people’s enemies. Kavalerdze still managed to show the heroism of peasants in their struggle against the exploiters. The sound has been artistically used in this film too.
The next film “Prometei” (1935) is also inspired by Taras Shevchenko. This time it was the poems “Son” and “Kavkaz”. Kavaleridze presents in it a broad picture of the Russian Empire in 19th century. With a deepest sympathy he shows fight for freedom of the Caucasus people. The newspaper “Pravda” has strongly criticized this film for an untrue reproduction of the historical events, after which the film has been removed from the screen.
All Kavaleridze’s works represent a very daring artistic experiment, which can be compared to the international researches in the modern art.
DIRECTOR’S LABORATORY (THE BRIGADE) OF IVAN KAVALERIDZE: UNKNOWN PAGES OF HISTORY
About life and creation of film director, scenario writer, sculptor, theatrical figure and writer Ivan P. Kavaleridze (1887–1978) it is written and taken off much, but his pedagogical activity in the film director’s laboratory (the brigade) of young film directors and directors of photography at the Kiev film studios during the surveys of the «Ukrainian songs on the screen» remains scantily explored.
І. P. Kavaleridze at the beginning of 1931 year already had an experience of management of young artists a brigade (by a creative laboratory), on the Odessa film studio. The article «Young filmmakers’ works» reported about it.
In 1935 year to 15 years of the soviet cinema I. Kavaleridze was the recipient of an award the order of Red Star. In those times the best film director-holders of an order had a right and, probably, must educate young artists.
Because of the gradual rolling up of official artistic cinema education in the Kiev state institute of cinematography, manager of Kiev film studio Pavlo F. Nechesa created terms for the leading Ukrainian film directors for bringing up of creative young people at the Kiev film studio. From 1935 to 1938 year there were a film director laboratory of Oleksandr P. Dovzhenko on the Kiev film studio and film director laboratory (brigade) of Ivan P. Kavaleridze, about what at the beginning of September, 1935 was reported even in a seal central.
Film director laboratory of I. P. Kavaleridze was created for initiatives of the greatest party guidance, about what artist reported on the pages of newspaper of the Kiev film studios. Except for Postishev, took a care this business and Deputy of National Commissar of Education Khvila, about what told in «Komsomolskaya pravda».
I. Kavaleridze became the leader of young film directors and operators, joint in the film director’s laboratory (brigade) – G. Koltunov, V. Kuchval'skiy, V. Lapoknish, B. Kanevskiy, P. Kolomoycev, F. Kornev, O. Fedotov.
However at the beginning of 1936 year all-union criticism prevented the artistic and cinema pedagogical plans of the glorified film director-holder of an order Ivan P. Kavaleridze for his last film «Prometheus».
Actually all of the third number of the «Soviet cinema» in 1936 year was devoted to collections of creative workers of the Kiev film studio on the discussion of the article, printed in a newspaper «Pravda» the «Rough chart in place of historical true», – about a picture «Prometheus» – film director Ivan P. Kavaleridze, which lasted four days.
After all of above-described Kavaleridze was not able to complete the trilogy planned by him «Koliivschina» – «Prometheus» – «Dnipro». Nevertheless, Ivan P. Kavaleridze continued to manage the surveys of films of the students in the film director laboratory (the brigade) parallel with the surveys of own films «Natalka Poltavka» by M. Lysenko and «Zaporizkyi kozak za Dunaiem» by S. Gulak-Artemovskiy.
Unfortunately, sad realities of that time (I. Kavaleridze and permanent change of guidance of the Kiev film studios and Ukrainian cinema fallen off) resulted in a volume, that the educational process in the film director’s laboratory after the successful surveys of short length films was stopped. The interesting and perspective pedagogical experiment of Kavaleridze did not have deserving continuation.
MUSEUM COLLECTION AS A SOURCE OF ANALYSIS OF FILM DIRECTOR WORK
(on materials about works of I. Kavaleridze from funds of Museum of Theatre, Music and Cinema Arts of Ukraine)
The article considers the using of museum collections as the source of materials important for scientific investigation. It also concerns the problem of research investigation of films and filmmakers that often lacks some principle sources. Text documents and works of art are often used as mediums but personal belongings and working paper aren’t often taken as bearers of information.
Museum is important as a place which is into charge of such objects. There are number of publications of museum collections; several of them, such as works by M. Kriachko, N. Yurchenko, A. Shumov, R. Korol concern Ivan Kavaleridze’s heritage. All of them except A. Shumov’s report deal with the documents and artworks. But museum collection is also interesting as a combination of heterogeneous objects often gathered occasionally and from different sources. They combine into a kind of text which is fragmentary but informative and rich in its own way.
Such a combined text is present in the collection of State Museum of Theatre, Music and Cinema Arts of Ukraine. It keeps four types of objects. They are: written works (letters, scripts), photo documents, drafts and sketches for Kavaleridze’s films and some of his sculpture works. Taken together, they represent different stages of creativity process.
Among the written works from the museum collection is the script “Honta of Maryanenko and Kurbas” by Ivan Kavaleridze, about the production of Shevchenko’s “Haydamaky” in “Beresil” theatre and performance of Ivan Maryanenko as Honta which also inspired Kavaleridze in filming his “Cloudburst”; the principles of this film’s architecture are exposed too.
Ivan Kavaleridze was an artist which worked in different fields so comparison of images he developed in homogeneous arts can also be perspective. The examples from the museum collection are his statues of Karas and Odarka from “Zaporozhets across the Danube”, the opera which was filmed by Kavaleridze.
The other important source is the set of materials for the film. The museum collection of designers’ and cameraman’s sketches contain a lot of information about the film process. Some museum objects such as letters tell about the destiny of Kavaleridze’s works. The other groups of materials are sculpture works, photos and negatives including that of working process, and advertising material as well.
In general, the museum collection is the set of materials which can direct onto numerous ways of research.
IVAN KAVALERIDZE: ARTIST AND POWER
Ivan Kavaleridze (1887-1978) is a one of the most prominent figures of Ukrainian cinematography. «Heavy Rain» (1929) was his first film. It drew immediate attention. Kavalerizde was compared to Renaissance artists, some explorers claimed him to be half a century in advance of Serhiy Paradzhanov.
The director’s next historic film was «Koliyivshchyna» (1933) – a story about XVIII century rebel against Polish oppression. The film, though having appeared on the screen, had to face a number of corrections. Kavaleridze was forced to remake some episodes totally.
«Prometheus» is a real masterpiece by Ivan Kavaleridze (1935). The ingenuity of the director’s idea lay in revealing the myth inversely: first comes the punishment, and then the crime which can only be regarded as vengeance. Kavaleridze was accused of formalism and twisting historic facts again. As a result, the director was banned to work with youth and, moreover, to make historic films.
It also should be mentioned that such result must have been expected, for a year before those events the dramatic article “Fighting Nationalism in cinematography” by O. Korniychuk and I. Yurchenko was published. The article was savagely critical towards Ukrainian directors’ oeuvre.
In 1941, Ivan Kavaleridze went to the Carpathians to direct «The Song of Dovbush». Here the war interfered not only destroying the director’s opportunity to finish his work, but also starting a new range of afflictions caused by authorities. Now the Nazis were pressing at him. But Ivan Kavaleridze refuses to work with a German film manager Tieman, though it was his studio where the director was first introduced to the world of cinema in 1911. Kavaleridze declines all the official offers made by the Nazi authorities. The reaction of Soviet government after the war looks more dramatic. The director was forbidden to make films again being almost accused of collaborationism.
Between his previous film called «Stozhary» (1939) and the next one called «Hryhoriy Skovoroda» (1959) more then twenty years passed. Here on the screen we can see the great Ukrainian philosopher who opposes any power trying to suppress him. He keeps his moral principals; the most important issue for him is his good conscience.
Ivan Kavaleridze not only filled this character with his personal autobiographic features, but also introduced his dreams of a different fate, of a life where he wouldn’t have been ideologically chained and oppressed by the Soviet authorities.
SOME REFLECTIONS ABOUT EXPERIMENTAL DRAMA OF IVAN KAVALERIDZE
The whole dramaturgy of Ivan Kavaleridze is closely and organically connected with its era, all European theater development of the second half of the past twentieth century.
Returning home from Petrograd to the city Romny in 1917, I. Kavaleridze participates in Ukrainian theater activity – he debuts as a dramaturge: stages Shevchenko's poem "Convict".
I. Kavaleridze came back to playwriting only in 1960s. It was social dramas: "On white horse", "Mighty strength", "Lybed River". In "Prostitute" by Panas Mirnyi, playwright made biggest emphasis on the image of Hrystia, a woman who become sluttish under the influence of social conditions.
Ivan Kavaleridze in his plays was able to depart from the orthodox socialist realism provisions. Breadth of his creative range in historical plays have leading and constant trend, typical for the entire European historical drama – among the many facts and historical cases, events was chosen heroic figure and such important character traits as intelligence, energy, serious sanity in the most difficult emergencies or unforeseen circumstances.
As an artist, he repeatedly refers to images that captured his imagination for a creative life. Thus, social tragicomedy "Jav" devoted to the role of art in our society of 1960s, and drama "The mouse in an empty basket" – the story of an inspired work of geologists that is nullified by petty tyrants, their bureaucracy and socialist system itself.
In 1972, Ivan Kavaleridze was admitted as playwright to the National Union of Soviet Writers, and a year later the State Publishing House "Dnipro" has issued a collection of his plays, and then it made the publishing house "Mystetstvo".
All this contributed to the artist to begin searching for pieces of national issues, break seals and backward of plot motifs in the contemporary drama, to experiment on shape and plot, discard theatrical routine, rethink traditional genres and update themes.
Looking over archival documents and own records I. Kavaleridze delves into the historical events of Ukraine, and its evidence will be the real historical tragedy, written in the late 1960s, "Grygorii and Paraskeva" (1968) and "Wotan’s Sword" (1970) because it is in them the author was most away from patterns and standards of socialist realism.
Mycola Bazhan, after reading the play, written by I. Kavaleridze said that with his creativity he made a significant contribution to the treasury of Ukrainian art, and I. Kornienko in the article "The sculptor, filmmaker, playwright" rightly concluded that "the work of Ivan Kavaleridze is marked by the seal of true art, and characterized by its special artistic handwriting".
Actually now we must take historical drama of Ivan Kavaleridze in the context of the time when he lived and worked. Among other plays should be called also the historical drama "White Swans", "The poet and the princess ", "Convict".
I. Kavaleridze wrote in difficult social and political times and was constantly aware of his task – to operate historical facts to condense the events in their artistic transformation and transfer so that there were also allusions of present